Development of procedures for programmable proximity aperture lithography

H.J. Whitlow (Corresponding Author), Sergey Gorelick, N. Puttaraksa, M. Napari, M.J. Hokkanen, R. Norarat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Programmable proximity aperture lithography (PPAL) with MeV ions has been used in Jyväskylä and Chiang Mai universities for a number of years. Here we describe a number of innovations and procedures that have been incorporated into the LabView-based software. The basic operation involves the coordination of the beam blanker and five motor-actuated translators with high accuracy, close to the minimum step size with proper anti-collision algorithms. By using special approaches, such writing calibration patterns, linearisation of position and careful backlash correction the absolute accuracy of the aperture size and position, can be improved beyond the standard afforded by the repeatability of the translator end-point switches. Another area of consideration has been the fluence control procedures. These involve control of the uniformity of the beam where different approaches for fluence measurement such as simultaneous aperture current and the ion current passing through the aperture using a Faraday cup are used. Microfluidic patterns may contain many elements that make-up mixing sections, reaction chambers, separation columns and fluid reservoirs. To facilitate conception and planning we have implemented a .svg file interpreter, that allows the use of scalable vector graphics files produced by standard drawing software for generation of patterns made up of rectangular elements.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)307-310
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed
Event13th International Conference on Microprobe Technology and Applications - Lisbon, Portugal
Duration: 22 Jul 201227 Jul 2012


  • ion-fluence
  • MeV ion beam lithography
  • microfluidics
  • programmable proximity aperture lithography (PPAL)


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