Diesel exhaust emissions and particle hygroscopicity with HVO fuel-oxygenate blend

Matti Happonen, Juha Heikkilä, Päivi Aakko-Saksa, Timo Murtonen, Kalle Lehto, Antti Rostedt, Teemu Sarjovaara, Martti Larmi, Jorma Keskinen, Annele Virtanen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    27 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Fully paraffinic diesel fuel produced from hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVOs) is one alternative to increase the share of renewable energy in the transport sector. HVO fuel has also been shown to reduce exhaust emissions but, as the fuel contains no oxygen, even higher emissions reductions are possible by blending the HVO fuel with suitable oxygenate. From a large number of oxygenates, di-n-pentyl ether (DNPE) was chosen due to its favourable fuel properties (e.g. high cetane number and good solubility to diesel). In this paper, it was studied how fuel blend containing 2 wt.% oxygen (80 wt.% HVO and 20 wt.% DNPE) affects particulate and NOx emissions of a single-cylinder research engine. It was observed that the blend reduced emitted particulate mass 25-30% depending on load while the NOx emissions was changed under 5%. Thus, PM and NOx can possibly be both reduced e.g. by utilising EGR. In addition to emission reductions, the effects of the blend on the hygroscopic properties of produced exhaust particles were studied using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The addition of oxygen into fuel led to a small increase in the hygroscopicity of exhaust particles.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)380-386
    Number of pages7
    JournalFuel
    Volume103
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Vehicle Emissions
    Plant Oils
    Vegetable oils
    Fuel oils
    Oxygen
    Ethers
    Antiknock rating
    Engine cylinders
    Diesel fuels
    Solubility
    Engines
    pentyl ether

    Keywords

    • Emissions
    • HVO
    • Hygroscopicity
    • Oxygenate
    • Particles

    Cite this

    Happonen, Matti ; Heikkilä, Juha ; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi ; Murtonen, Timo ; Lehto, Kalle ; Rostedt, Antti ; Sarjovaara, Teemu ; Larmi, Martti ; Keskinen, Jorma ; Virtanen, Annele. / Diesel exhaust emissions and particle hygroscopicity with HVO fuel-oxygenate blend. In: Fuel. 2013 ; Vol. 103. pp. 380-386.
    @article{57ecb7fe18a048428b786e93922f0239,
    title = "Diesel exhaust emissions and particle hygroscopicity with HVO fuel-oxygenate blend",
    abstract = "Fully paraffinic diesel fuel produced from hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVOs) is one alternative to increase the share of renewable energy in the transport sector. HVO fuel has also been shown to reduce exhaust emissions but, as the fuel contains no oxygen, even higher emissions reductions are possible by blending the HVO fuel with suitable oxygenate. From a large number of oxygenates, di-n-pentyl ether (DNPE) was chosen due to its favourable fuel properties (e.g. high cetane number and good solubility to diesel). In this paper, it was studied how fuel blend containing 2 wt.{\%} oxygen (80 wt.{\%} HVO and 20 wt.{\%} DNPE) affects particulate and NOx emissions of a single-cylinder research engine. It was observed that the blend reduced emitted particulate mass 25-30{\%} depending on load while the NOx emissions was changed under 5{\%}. Thus, PM and NOx can possibly be both reduced e.g. by utilising EGR. In addition to emission reductions, the effects of the blend on the hygroscopic properties of produced exhaust particles were studied using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The addition of oxygen into fuel led to a small increase in the hygroscopicity of exhaust particles.",
    keywords = "Emissions, HVO, Hygroscopicity, Oxygenate, Particles",
    author = "Matti Happonen and Juha Heikkil{\"a} and P{\"a}ivi Aakko-Saksa and Timo Murtonen and Kalle Lehto and Antti Rostedt and Teemu Sarjovaara and Martti Larmi and Jorma Keskinen and Annele Virtanen",
    year = "2013",
    month = "1",
    day = "1",
    doi = "10.1016/j.fuel.2012.09.006",
    language = "English",
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    Happonen, M, Heikkilä, J, Aakko-Saksa, P, Murtonen, T, Lehto, K, Rostedt, A, Sarjovaara, T, Larmi, M, Keskinen, J & Virtanen, A 2013, 'Diesel exhaust emissions and particle hygroscopicity with HVO fuel-oxygenate blend', Fuel, vol. 103, pp. 380-386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.09.006

    Diesel exhaust emissions and particle hygroscopicity with HVO fuel-oxygenate blend. / Happonen, Matti; Heikkilä, Juha; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Murtonen, Timo; Lehto, Kalle; Rostedt, Antti; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Larmi, Martti; Keskinen, Jorma; Virtanen, Annele.

    In: Fuel, Vol. 103, 01.01.2013, p. 380-386.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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    AU - Happonen, Matti

    AU - Heikkilä, Juha

    AU - Aakko-Saksa, Päivi

    AU - Murtonen, Timo

    AU - Lehto, Kalle

    AU - Rostedt, Antti

    AU - Sarjovaara, Teemu

    AU - Larmi, Martti

    AU - Keskinen, Jorma

    AU - Virtanen, Annele

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    N2 - Fully paraffinic diesel fuel produced from hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVOs) is one alternative to increase the share of renewable energy in the transport sector. HVO fuel has also been shown to reduce exhaust emissions but, as the fuel contains no oxygen, even higher emissions reductions are possible by blending the HVO fuel with suitable oxygenate. From a large number of oxygenates, di-n-pentyl ether (DNPE) was chosen due to its favourable fuel properties (e.g. high cetane number and good solubility to diesel). In this paper, it was studied how fuel blend containing 2 wt.% oxygen (80 wt.% HVO and 20 wt.% DNPE) affects particulate and NOx emissions of a single-cylinder research engine. It was observed that the blend reduced emitted particulate mass 25-30% depending on load while the NOx emissions was changed under 5%. Thus, PM and NOx can possibly be both reduced e.g. by utilising EGR. In addition to emission reductions, the effects of the blend on the hygroscopic properties of produced exhaust particles were studied using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The addition of oxygen into fuel led to a small increase in the hygroscopicity of exhaust particles.

    AB - Fully paraffinic diesel fuel produced from hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVOs) is one alternative to increase the share of renewable energy in the transport sector. HVO fuel has also been shown to reduce exhaust emissions but, as the fuel contains no oxygen, even higher emissions reductions are possible by blending the HVO fuel with suitable oxygenate. From a large number of oxygenates, di-n-pentyl ether (DNPE) was chosen due to its favourable fuel properties (e.g. high cetane number and good solubility to diesel). In this paper, it was studied how fuel blend containing 2 wt.% oxygen (80 wt.% HVO and 20 wt.% DNPE) affects particulate and NOx emissions of a single-cylinder research engine. It was observed that the blend reduced emitted particulate mass 25-30% depending on load while the NOx emissions was changed under 5%. Thus, PM and NOx can possibly be both reduced e.g. by utilising EGR. In addition to emission reductions, the effects of the blend on the hygroscopic properties of produced exhaust particles were studied using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The addition of oxygen into fuel led to a small increase in the hygroscopicity of exhaust particles.

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