Diesel exhaust emissions and particle hygroscopicity with HVO fuel-oxygenate blend

Matti Happonen, Juha Heikkilä, Päivi Aakko-Saksa, Timo Murtonen, Kalle Lehto, Antti Rostedt, Teemu Sarjovaara, Martti Larmi, Jorma Keskinen, Annele Virtanen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Fully paraffinic diesel fuel produced from hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVOs) is one alternative to increase the share of renewable energy in the transport sector. HVO fuel has also been shown to reduce exhaust emissions but, as the fuel contains no oxygen, even higher emissions reductions are possible by blending the HVO fuel with suitable oxygenate. From a large number of oxygenates, di-n-pentyl ether (DNPE) was chosen due to its favourable fuel properties (e.g. high cetane number and good solubility to diesel). In this paper, it was studied how fuel blend containing 2 wt.% oxygen (80 wt.% HVO and 20 wt.% DNPE) affects particulate and NOx emissions of a single-cylinder research engine. It was observed that the blend reduced emitted particulate mass 25-30% depending on load while the NOx emissions was changed under 5%. Thus, PM and NOx can possibly be both reduced e.g. by utilising EGR. In addition to emission reductions, the effects of the blend on the hygroscopic properties of produced exhaust particles were studied using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The addition of oxygen into fuel led to a small increase in the hygroscopicity of exhaust particles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)380-386
Number of pages7
JournalFuel
Volume103
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Vehicle Emissions
Plant Oils
Vegetable oils
Fuel oils
Oxygen
Ethers
Antiknock rating
Engine cylinders
Diesel fuels
Solubility
Engines
pentyl ether

Keywords

  • Emissions
  • HVO
  • Hygroscopicity
  • Oxygenate
  • Particles

Cite this

Happonen, Matti ; Heikkilä, Juha ; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi ; Murtonen, Timo ; Lehto, Kalle ; Rostedt, Antti ; Sarjovaara, Teemu ; Larmi, Martti ; Keskinen, Jorma ; Virtanen, Annele. / Diesel exhaust emissions and particle hygroscopicity with HVO fuel-oxygenate blend. In: Fuel. 2013 ; Vol. 103. pp. 380-386.
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abstract = "Fully paraffinic diesel fuel produced from hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVOs) is one alternative to increase the share of renewable energy in the transport sector. HVO fuel has also been shown to reduce exhaust emissions but, as the fuel contains no oxygen, even higher emissions reductions are possible by blending the HVO fuel with suitable oxygenate. From a large number of oxygenates, di-n-pentyl ether (DNPE) was chosen due to its favourable fuel properties (e.g. high cetane number and good solubility to diesel). In this paper, it was studied how fuel blend containing 2 wt.{\%} oxygen (80 wt.{\%} HVO and 20 wt.{\%} DNPE) affects particulate and NOx emissions of a single-cylinder research engine. It was observed that the blend reduced emitted particulate mass 25-30{\%} depending on load while the NOx emissions was changed under 5{\%}. Thus, PM and NOx can possibly be both reduced e.g. by utilising EGR. In addition to emission reductions, the effects of the blend on the hygroscopic properties of produced exhaust particles were studied using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The addition of oxygen into fuel led to a small increase in the hygroscopicity of exhaust particles.",
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Happonen, M, Heikkilä, J, Aakko-Saksa, P, Murtonen, T, Lehto, K, Rostedt, A, Sarjovaara, T, Larmi, M, Keskinen, J & Virtanen, A 2013, 'Diesel exhaust emissions and particle hygroscopicity with HVO fuel-oxygenate blend', Fuel, vol. 103, pp. 380-386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.09.006

Diesel exhaust emissions and particle hygroscopicity with HVO fuel-oxygenate blend. / Happonen, Matti; Heikkilä, Juha; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Murtonen, Timo; Lehto, Kalle; Rostedt, Antti; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Larmi, Martti; Keskinen, Jorma; Virtanen, Annele.

In: Fuel, Vol. 103, 01.01.2013, p. 380-386.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Diesel exhaust emissions and particle hygroscopicity with HVO fuel-oxygenate blend

AU - Happonen, Matti

AU - Heikkilä, Juha

AU - Aakko-Saksa, Päivi

AU - Murtonen, Timo

AU - Lehto, Kalle

AU - Rostedt, Antti

AU - Sarjovaara, Teemu

AU - Larmi, Martti

AU - Keskinen, Jorma

AU - Virtanen, Annele

PY - 2013/1/1

Y1 - 2013/1/1

N2 - Fully paraffinic diesel fuel produced from hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVOs) is one alternative to increase the share of renewable energy in the transport sector. HVO fuel has also been shown to reduce exhaust emissions but, as the fuel contains no oxygen, even higher emissions reductions are possible by blending the HVO fuel with suitable oxygenate. From a large number of oxygenates, di-n-pentyl ether (DNPE) was chosen due to its favourable fuel properties (e.g. high cetane number and good solubility to diesel). In this paper, it was studied how fuel blend containing 2 wt.% oxygen (80 wt.% HVO and 20 wt.% DNPE) affects particulate and NOx emissions of a single-cylinder research engine. It was observed that the blend reduced emitted particulate mass 25-30% depending on load while the NOx emissions was changed under 5%. Thus, PM and NOx can possibly be both reduced e.g. by utilising EGR. In addition to emission reductions, the effects of the blend on the hygroscopic properties of produced exhaust particles were studied using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The addition of oxygen into fuel led to a small increase in the hygroscopicity of exhaust particles.

AB - Fully paraffinic diesel fuel produced from hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVOs) is one alternative to increase the share of renewable energy in the transport sector. HVO fuel has also been shown to reduce exhaust emissions but, as the fuel contains no oxygen, even higher emissions reductions are possible by blending the HVO fuel with suitable oxygenate. From a large number of oxygenates, di-n-pentyl ether (DNPE) was chosen due to its favourable fuel properties (e.g. high cetane number and good solubility to diesel). In this paper, it was studied how fuel blend containing 2 wt.% oxygen (80 wt.% HVO and 20 wt.% DNPE) affects particulate and NOx emissions of a single-cylinder research engine. It was observed that the blend reduced emitted particulate mass 25-30% depending on load while the NOx emissions was changed under 5%. Thus, PM and NOx can possibly be both reduced e.g. by utilising EGR. In addition to emission reductions, the effects of the blend on the hygroscopic properties of produced exhaust particles were studied using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The addition of oxygen into fuel led to a small increase in the hygroscopicity of exhaust particles.

KW - Emissions

KW - HVO

KW - Hygroscopicity

KW - Oxygenate

KW - Particles

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U2 - 10.1016/j.fuel.2012.09.006

DO - 10.1016/j.fuel.2012.09.006

M3 - Article

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SN - 0016-2361

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