Dietary carbohydrate modification enhances insulin secretion in persons with the metabolic syndrome

David E. Laaksonen (Corresponding Author), Leena K. Toppinen, Katri S. Juntunen, Karin Autio, Kirsi-Helena Liukkonen, Kaisa Poutanen, Leo Niskanen, Hannu Mykkänen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

Background: The metabolic syndrome markedly increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but the influence of dietary modification on insulin and glucose metabolism independent of weight loss is still poorly understood.

Objective: Our aim was to test whether carbohydrate dietary modifications improve insulin sensitivity and secretion and glucose tolerance in overweight or obese persons with the metabolic syndrome, even in the absence of weight loss.

Design: We assessed the effect of carbohydrate modification on insulin and glucose metabolism in 72 overweight or obese men and women with the metabolic syndrome, as determined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. The subjects were randomly assigned to 12-wk diets in which either rye bread and pasta or oat and wheat bread and potato were the main carbohydrate sources (34% and 37% of energy intake, respectively).

Results: Body weight did not significantly change in either group during the trial. No significant difference was observed in the changes in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations or in glucose and insulin areas under the curve between the groups during a 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test. The insulinogenic index (an index of early insulin secretion) increased more in the rye bread and pasta group than in the oat and wheat bread and potato group (33.2% compared with 5.5%; P = 0.026). In the combined groups, an enhanced insulinogenic index was associated with improved glucose tolerance, whereas weight gain worsened glucose tolerance. Moreover, even modest weight gains abolished the relative improvement in the insulinogenic index in the rye bread and pasta group compared with the oat and wheat bread and potato group (P for the interaction between weight change and group = 0.019).

Conclusions: Rye bread and pasta-based carbohydrate modification enhances early insulin secretion in persons with the metabolic syndrome, which may lower the risk of deteriorating glucose tolerance and development of type 2 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1218 - 1227
Number of pages10
JournalThe American journal of clinical nutrition
Volume82
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Dietary Carbohydrates
Diet Therapy
Bread
Insulin
Glucose
Solanum tuberosum
Carbohydrates
Triticum
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Weight Gain
Weight Loss
Glucose Tolerance Test
Energy Intake
Area Under Curve
Insulin Resistance
Fasting
Cardiovascular Diseases
Cholesterol
Body Weight
Diet

Keywords

  • Rye
  • oat
  • wheat
  • insulin secretion
  • glucose tolerance
  • metabolic syndrome
  • randomized controlled trial

Cite this

Laaksonen, D. E., Toppinen, L. K., Juntunen, K. S., Autio, K., Liukkonen, K-H., Poutanen, K., ... Mykkänen, H. (2005). Dietary carbohydrate modification enhances insulin secretion in persons with the metabolic syndrome. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 82(6), 1218 - 1227. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/82.6.1218
Laaksonen, David E. ; Toppinen, Leena K. ; Juntunen, Katri S. ; Autio, Karin ; Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena ; Poutanen, Kaisa ; Niskanen, Leo ; Mykkänen, Hannu. / Dietary carbohydrate modification enhances insulin secretion in persons with the metabolic syndrome. In: The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2005 ; Vol. 82, No. 6. pp. 1218 - 1227.
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abstract = "Background: The metabolic syndrome markedly increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but the influence of dietary modification on insulin and glucose metabolism independent of weight loss is still poorly understood.Objective: Our aim was to test whether carbohydrate dietary modifications improve insulin sensitivity and secretion and glucose tolerance in overweight or obese persons with the metabolic syndrome, even in the absence of weight loss.Design: We assessed the effect of carbohydrate modification on insulin and glucose metabolism in 72 overweight or obese men and women with the metabolic syndrome, as determined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. The subjects were randomly assigned to 12-wk diets in which either rye bread and pasta or oat and wheat bread and potato were the main carbohydrate sources (34{\%} and 37{\%} of energy intake, respectively).Results: Body weight did not significantly change in either group during the trial. No significant difference was observed in the changes in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations or in glucose and insulin areas under the curve between the groups during a 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test. The insulinogenic index (an index of early insulin secretion) increased more in the rye bread and pasta group than in the oat and wheat bread and potato group (33.2{\%} compared with 5.5{\%}; P = 0.026). In the combined groups, an enhanced insulinogenic index was associated with improved glucose tolerance, whereas weight gain worsened glucose tolerance. Moreover, even modest weight gains abolished the relative improvement in the insulinogenic index in the rye bread and pasta group compared with the oat and wheat bread and potato group (P for the interaction between weight change and group = 0.019).Conclusions: Rye bread and pasta-based carbohydrate modification enhances early insulin secretion in persons with the metabolic syndrome, which may lower the risk of deteriorating glucose tolerance and development of type 2 diabetes.",
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Laaksonen, DE, Toppinen, LK, Juntunen, KS, Autio, K, Liukkonen, K-H, Poutanen, K, Niskanen, L & Mykkänen, H 2005, 'Dietary carbohydrate modification enhances insulin secretion in persons with the metabolic syndrome', The American journal of clinical nutrition, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 1218 - 1227. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/82.6.1218

Dietary carbohydrate modification enhances insulin secretion in persons with the metabolic syndrome. / Laaksonen, David E. (Corresponding Author); Toppinen, Leena K.; Juntunen, Katri S.; Autio, Karin; Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena; Poutanen, Kaisa; Niskanen, Leo; Mykkänen, Hannu.

In: The American journal of clinical nutrition, Vol. 82, No. 6, 2005, p. 1218 - 1227.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dietary carbohydrate modification enhances insulin secretion in persons with the metabolic syndrome

AU - Laaksonen, David E.

AU - Toppinen, Leena K.

AU - Juntunen, Katri S.

AU - Autio, Karin

AU - Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena

AU - Poutanen, Kaisa

AU - Niskanen, Leo

AU - Mykkänen, Hannu

PY - 2005

Y1 - 2005

N2 - Background: The metabolic syndrome markedly increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but the influence of dietary modification on insulin and glucose metabolism independent of weight loss is still poorly understood.Objective: Our aim was to test whether carbohydrate dietary modifications improve insulin sensitivity and secretion and glucose tolerance in overweight or obese persons with the metabolic syndrome, even in the absence of weight loss.Design: We assessed the effect of carbohydrate modification on insulin and glucose metabolism in 72 overweight or obese men and women with the metabolic syndrome, as determined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. The subjects were randomly assigned to 12-wk diets in which either rye bread and pasta or oat and wheat bread and potato were the main carbohydrate sources (34% and 37% of energy intake, respectively).Results: Body weight did not significantly change in either group during the trial. No significant difference was observed in the changes in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations or in glucose and insulin areas under the curve between the groups during a 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test. The insulinogenic index (an index of early insulin secretion) increased more in the rye bread and pasta group than in the oat and wheat bread and potato group (33.2% compared with 5.5%; P = 0.026). In the combined groups, an enhanced insulinogenic index was associated with improved glucose tolerance, whereas weight gain worsened glucose tolerance. Moreover, even modest weight gains abolished the relative improvement in the insulinogenic index in the rye bread and pasta group compared with the oat and wheat bread and potato group (P for the interaction between weight change and group = 0.019).Conclusions: Rye bread and pasta-based carbohydrate modification enhances early insulin secretion in persons with the metabolic syndrome, which may lower the risk of deteriorating glucose tolerance and development of type 2 diabetes.

AB - Background: The metabolic syndrome markedly increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but the influence of dietary modification on insulin and glucose metabolism independent of weight loss is still poorly understood.Objective: Our aim was to test whether carbohydrate dietary modifications improve insulin sensitivity and secretion and glucose tolerance in overweight or obese persons with the metabolic syndrome, even in the absence of weight loss.Design: We assessed the effect of carbohydrate modification on insulin and glucose metabolism in 72 overweight or obese men and women with the metabolic syndrome, as determined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. The subjects were randomly assigned to 12-wk diets in which either rye bread and pasta or oat and wheat bread and potato were the main carbohydrate sources (34% and 37% of energy intake, respectively).Results: Body weight did not significantly change in either group during the trial. No significant difference was observed in the changes in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations or in glucose and insulin areas under the curve between the groups during a 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance test. The insulinogenic index (an index of early insulin secretion) increased more in the rye bread and pasta group than in the oat and wheat bread and potato group (33.2% compared with 5.5%; P = 0.026). In the combined groups, an enhanced insulinogenic index was associated with improved glucose tolerance, whereas weight gain worsened glucose tolerance. Moreover, even modest weight gains abolished the relative improvement in the insulinogenic index in the rye bread and pasta group compared with the oat and wheat bread and potato group (P for the interaction between weight change and group = 0.019).Conclusions: Rye bread and pasta-based carbohydrate modification enhances early insulin secretion in persons with the metabolic syndrome, which may lower the risk of deteriorating glucose tolerance and development of type 2 diabetes.

KW - Rye

KW - oat

KW - wheat

KW - insulin secretion

KW - glucose tolerance

KW - metabolic syndrome

KW - randomized controlled trial

U2 - 10.1093/ajcn/82.6.1218

DO - 10.1093/ajcn/82.6.1218

M3 - Article

VL - 82

SP - 1218

EP - 1227

JO - The American journal of clinical nutrition

JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 6

ER -