Aims: Gut microbiota significantly impacts human health and is influenced by dietary changes. We evaluated the effects of diets naturally rich in polyphenols (PP) and/or long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3) on microbiota composition in an ancillary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in individuals at high cardiometabolic risk. Methods: Seventy-eight individuals with high waist circumference and at least one additional component of the metabolic syndrome were randomized to an isoenergetic 8-week diet: (a) low LCn3 and PP; (b) high LCn3; (c) high PP; or (d) high LCn3 and PP. Microbiota analysis was performed on feces collected before and after the intervention. DGGE analysis of the predominant bacteria, Eubacterium rectale and Blautia coccoides group (Lachnospiraceae, EREC), Clostridium leptum (Ruminococcaceae, CLEPT), Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacteria, and Lactobacillus group was performed. A quantitative real-time PCR was performed for the same group, additionally including Atopobium cluster (Coriobatteriaceae). Before and after the intervention, participants underwent a 75 g OGTT and a high-fat test meal to evaluate glucose and lipid response. Results: Adherence to the four diets was optimal. PP significantly increased microbial diversity (p = 0.006) and CLEPT (p = 0.015), while it reduced EREC (p = 0.044). LCn3 significantly increased the numbers of Bifidobacteria (p = 0.041). Changes in CLEPT numbers correlated with changes in early insulin secretion (r = 0.263, p = 0.030). Changes in Atopobium numbers correlated with postprandial triglycerides in plasma (r = 0.266, p = 0.026) and large VLDL (r = 0.313, p = 0.009), and cholesterol in large VLDL (r = 0.319, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Diets naturally rich in PP or LCn3 influenced gut microbiota composition in individuals at high cardiometabolic risk. These modifications were associated with changes in glucose/lipid metabolism.
- Glucose tolerance
- Gut microbiota
- Lipid response
- Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
- Microbiota diversity