Difference in postprandial GLP-1 response despite similar glucose kinetics after consumption of wheat breads with different particle size in healthy men

Coby Eelderink (Corresponding Author), Martijn W.J. Noort, Nesli Sözer, Martijn Koehorst, Jens J. Holst, Carolyn F. Deacon, Jens F. Rehfeld, Kaisa Poutanen, Roel J. Vonk, Lizette Oudhuis, Marion G. Priebe

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    26 Citations (Scopus)


    PURPOSE: Underlying mechanisms of the beneficial health effects of low glycemic index starchy foods are not fully elucidated yet. We varied the wheat particle size to obtain fiber-rich breads with a high and low glycemic response and investigated the differences in postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response after their consumption.METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers participated in a randomized, crossover study, consuming 13C-enriched breads with different structures; a control bread (CB) made from wheat flour combined with wheat bran, and a kernel bread (KB) where 85 % of flour was substituted with broken wheat kernels. The structure of the breads was characterized extensively. The use of stable isotopes enabled calculation of glucose kinetics: rate of appearance of exogenous glucose, endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate. Additionally, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, incretins, cholecystokinin, and bile acids were analyzed.RESULTS: Despite the attempt to obtain a bread with a low glycemic response by replacing flour by broken kernels, the glycemic response and glucose kinetics were quite similar after consumption of CB and KB. Interestingly, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response was much lower after KB compared to CB (iAUC, P < 0.005). A clear postprandial increase in plasma conjugated bile acids was observed after both meals.CONCLUSIONS: Substitution of 85 % wheat flour by broken kernels in bread did not result in a difference in glucose response and kinetics, but in a pronounced difference in GLP-1 response. Thus, changing the processing conditions of wheat for baking bread can influence the metabolic response beyond glycemia and may therefore influence health.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1063-1076
    JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2017
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • bile acids
    • bread processing
    • glucagon-like peptide-1
    • glucose kinetics
    • glycemic index
    • wheat kernels
    • Appetite
    • Body Mass Index
    • Glucagon/blood
    • Blood Glucose/metabolism
    • Humans
    • Incretins/blood
    • Insulin/blood
    • Triticum/chemistry
    • Male
    • Dietary Fiber/administration & dosage
    • Flour
    • Bread
    • Cross-Over Studies
    • Particle Size
    • Young Adult
    • Postprandial Period
    • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/blood
    • Bile Acids and Salts/blood


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