Difference in postprandial GLP-1 response despite similar glucose kinetics after consumption of wheat breads with different particle size in healthy men

Coby Eelderink (Corresponding Author), Martijn W.J. Noort, Nesli Sozer, Martijn Koehorst, Jens J. Holst, Carolyn F. Deacon, Jens F. Rehfeld, Kaisa Poutanen, Roel J. Vonk, Lizette Oudhuis, Marion G. Priebe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

PURPOSE: Underlying mechanisms of the beneficial health effects of low glycemic index starchy foods are not fully elucidated yet. We varied the wheat particle size to obtain fiber-rich breads with a high and low glycemic response and investigated the differences in postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response after their consumption. METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers participated in a randomized, crossover study, consuming 13C-enriched breads with different structures; a control bread (CB) made from wheat flour combined with wheat bran, and a kernel bread (KB) where 85 % of flour was substituted with broken wheat kernels. The structure of the breads was characterized extensively. The use of stable isotopes enabled calculation of glucose kinetics: rate of appearance of exogenous glucose, endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate. Additionally, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, incretins, cholecystokinin, and bile acids were analyzed. RESULTS: Despite the attempt to obtain a bread with a low glycemic response by replacing flour by broken kernels, the glycemic response and glucose kinetics were quite similar after consumption of CB and KB. Interestingly, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response was much lower after KB compared to CB (iAUC, P < 0.005). A clear postprandial increase in plasma conjugated bile acids was observed after both meals. CONCLUSIONS: Substitution of 85 % wheat flour by broken kernels in bread did not result in a difference in glucose response and kinetics, but in a pronounced difference in GLP-1 response. Thus, changing the processing conditions of wheat for baking bread can influence the metabolic response beyond glycemia and may therefore influence health.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1063-1076
Number of pages14
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Volume56
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
Bread
Particle Size
Triticum
Glucose
Flour
Bile Acids and Salts
Glycemic Index
Incretins
Cholecystokinin
Health
Dietary Fiber
Glucagon
Isotopes
Cross-Over Studies
Meals
Healthy Volunteers

Keywords

  • bile acids
  • bread processing
  • glucagon-like peptide-1
  • glucose kinetics
  • glycemic index
  • wheat kernels

Cite this

Eelderink, Coby ; Noort, Martijn W.J. ; Sozer, Nesli ; Koehorst, Martijn ; Holst, Jens J. ; Deacon, Carolyn F. ; Rehfeld, Jens F. ; Poutanen, Kaisa ; Vonk, Roel J. ; Oudhuis, Lizette ; Priebe, Marion G. / Difference in postprandial GLP-1 response despite similar glucose kinetics after consumption of wheat breads with different particle size in healthy men. In: European Journal of Nutrition. 2017 ; Vol. 56, No. 3. pp. 1063-1076.
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title = "Difference in postprandial GLP-1 response despite similar glucose kinetics after consumption of wheat breads with different particle size in healthy men",
abstract = "PURPOSE: Underlying mechanisms of the beneficial health effects of low glycemic index starchy foods are not fully elucidated yet. We varied the wheat particle size to obtain fiber-rich breads with a high and low glycemic response and investigated the differences in postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response after their consumption. METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers participated in a randomized, crossover study, consuming 13C-enriched breads with different structures; a control bread (CB) made from wheat flour combined with wheat bran, and a kernel bread (KB) where 85 {\%} of flour was substituted with broken wheat kernels. The structure of the breads was characterized extensively. The use of stable isotopes enabled calculation of glucose kinetics: rate of appearance of exogenous glucose, endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate. Additionally, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, incretins, cholecystokinin, and bile acids were analyzed. RESULTS: Despite the attempt to obtain a bread with a low glycemic response by replacing flour by broken kernels, the glycemic response and glucose kinetics were quite similar after consumption of CB and KB. Interestingly, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response was much lower after KB compared to CB (iAUC, P < 0.005). A clear postprandial increase in plasma conjugated bile acids was observed after both meals. CONCLUSIONS: Substitution of 85 {\%} wheat flour by broken kernels in bread did not result in a difference in glucose response and kinetics, but in a pronounced difference in GLP-1 response. Thus, changing the processing conditions of wheat for baking bread can influence the metabolic response beyond glycemia and may therefore influence health.",
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author = "Coby Eelderink and Noort, {Martijn W.J.} and Nesli Sozer and Martijn Koehorst and Holst, {Jens J.} and Deacon, {Carolyn F.} and Rehfeld, {Jens F.} and Kaisa Poutanen and Vonk, {Roel J.} and Lizette Oudhuis and Priebe, {Marion G.}",
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Difference in postprandial GLP-1 response despite similar glucose kinetics after consumption of wheat breads with different particle size in healthy men. / Eelderink, Coby (Corresponding Author); Noort, Martijn W.J.; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J.; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J.; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G.

In: European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 56, No. 3, 04.2017, p. 1063-1076.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Difference in postprandial GLP-1 response despite similar glucose kinetics after consumption of wheat breads with different particle size in healthy men

AU - Eelderink, Coby

AU - Noort, Martijn W.J.

AU - Sozer, Nesli

AU - Koehorst, Martijn

AU - Holst, Jens J.

AU - Deacon, Carolyn F.

AU - Rehfeld, Jens F.

AU - Poutanen, Kaisa

AU - Vonk, Roel J.

AU - Oudhuis, Lizette

AU - Priebe, Marion G.

N1 - ISI: NUTRITION & DIETETICS

PY - 2017/4

Y1 - 2017/4

N2 - PURPOSE: Underlying mechanisms of the beneficial health effects of low glycemic index starchy foods are not fully elucidated yet. We varied the wheat particle size to obtain fiber-rich breads with a high and low glycemic response and investigated the differences in postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response after their consumption. METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers participated in a randomized, crossover study, consuming 13C-enriched breads with different structures; a control bread (CB) made from wheat flour combined with wheat bran, and a kernel bread (KB) where 85 % of flour was substituted with broken wheat kernels. The structure of the breads was characterized extensively. The use of stable isotopes enabled calculation of glucose kinetics: rate of appearance of exogenous glucose, endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate. Additionally, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, incretins, cholecystokinin, and bile acids were analyzed. RESULTS: Despite the attempt to obtain a bread with a low glycemic response by replacing flour by broken kernels, the glycemic response and glucose kinetics were quite similar after consumption of CB and KB. Interestingly, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response was much lower after KB compared to CB (iAUC, P < 0.005). A clear postprandial increase in plasma conjugated bile acids was observed after both meals. CONCLUSIONS: Substitution of 85 % wheat flour by broken kernels in bread did not result in a difference in glucose response and kinetics, but in a pronounced difference in GLP-1 response. Thus, changing the processing conditions of wheat for baking bread can influence the metabolic response beyond glycemia and may therefore influence health.

AB - PURPOSE: Underlying mechanisms of the beneficial health effects of low glycemic index starchy foods are not fully elucidated yet. We varied the wheat particle size to obtain fiber-rich breads with a high and low glycemic response and investigated the differences in postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response after their consumption. METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers participated in a randomized, crossover study, consuming 13C-enriched breads with different structures; a control bread (CB) made from wheat flour combined with wheat bran, and a kernel bread (KB) where 85 % of flour was substituted with broken wheat kernels. The structure of the breads was characterized extensively. The use of stable isotopes enabled calculation of glucose kinetics: rate of appearance of exogenous glucose, endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate. Additionally, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, incretins, cholecystokinin, and bile acids were analyzed. RESULTS: Despite the attempt to obtain a bread with a low glycemic response by replacing flour by broken kernels, the glycemic response and glucose kinetics were quite similar after consumption of CB and KB. Interestingly, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response was much lower after KB compared to CB (iAUC, P < 0.005). A clear postprandial increase in plasma conjugated bile acids was observed after both meals. CONCLUSIONS: Substitution of 85 % wheat flour by broken kernels in bread did not result in a difference in glucose response and kinetics, but in a pronounced difference in GLP-1 response. Thus, changing the processing conditions of wheat for baking bread can influence the metabolic response beyond glycemia and may therefore influence health.

KW - bile acids

KW - bread processing

KW - glucagon-like peptide-1

KW - glucose kinetics

KW - glycemic index

KW - wheat kernels

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U2 - 10.1007/s00394-016-1156-6

DO - 10.1007/s00394-016-1156-6

M3 - Article

VL - 56

SP - 1063

EP - 1076

JO - European Journal of Nutrition

JF - European Journal of Nutrition

SN - 1436-6207

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ER -