The concentration of individual resin acids and the equilibrium moisture content at a relative humidity of 100% were studied in brown-rot resistant and susceptible Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) heartwood. About 90% of the resin acids in the heartwood were of the abietane type, abietic acid being the most abundant. The concentration of resin acids was higher in the decay-resistant heartwood than in the decay-susceptible heartwood. Resin acids are presumably in part responsible for the decay resistance of Scots pine heartwood. However, no clear relationship was found between the concentration of resin acids and the equilibrium moisture content. The role of resin acids may also be ascribed to mechanisms other than their hydrophobic properties alone. The reasons for the slight differences in moisture content between the decay classes require further study.