Differential evolution of Strecker and non-Strecker aldehydes during aging of pale and dark beers

Brian Gibson (Corresponding Author), Ville Aumala, Raija-Liisa Heiniö, Atte Mikkelson, Kaisu Honkapää

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Abstract

To determine characteristics associated with stability, 35 commercial beers were aged naturally. Chemical instability, as determined by increase in aldehyde concentration during aging, was associated with beer color. In particular, darker beers produced disproportionately high levels of Strecker aldehydes. Other attributes of fresh beer showed little or no correlation with stability. The relationship between color and instability was confirmed experimentally by brewing and fermenting worts of different color, which were otherwise identical. Increases were noted also for the non-Strecker aldehydes furfural and hexanal during aging but concentrations were not influenced by beer color. Potential aldehyde precursors: higher alcohols and amino acids, were not higher in the dark worts and the higher aldehyde concentration is therefore not dependent on pre-cursor concentration. Supplementation of the amino acid isoleucine to fresh beer promoted the formation of 2-methylbutanal particularly in dark beers, presumably due to increased Strecker degradation. Conversely, addition of the higher alcohol 2-methylbutanol led to higher concentrations of 2-methylbutanal irrespective of beer color. Increased Strecker degradation reactions may explain, at least in part, the higher level of Strecker aldheydes observed in dark beers after aging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)130-138
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Cereal Science
Volume83
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Beer
beers
Aldehydes
aldehydes
Aging of materials
Color
color
alcohols
Alcohols
Brewing
Furaldehyde
Amino Acids
Degradation
furfural
amino acids
degradation
Isoleucine
brewing
isoleucine

Cite this

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title = "Differential evolution of Strecker and non-Strecker aldehydes during aging of pale and dark beers",
abstract = "To determine characteristics associated with stability, 35 commercial beers were aged naturally. Chemical instability, as determined by increase in aldehyde concentration during aging, was associated with beer color. In particular, darker beers produced disproportionately high levels of Strecker aldehydes. Other attributes of fresh beer showed little or no correlation with stability. The relationship between color and instability was confirmed experimentally by brewing and fermenting worts of different color, which were otherwise identical. Increases were noted also for the non-Strecker aldehydes furfural and hexanal during aging but concentrations were not influenced by beer color. Potential aldehyde precursors: higher alcohols and amino acids, were not higher in the dark worts and the higher aldehyde concentration is therefore not dependent on pre-cursor concentration. Supplementation of the amino acid isoleucine to fresh beer promoted the formation of 2-methylbutanal particularly in dark beers, presumably due to increased Strecker degradation. Conversely, addition of the higher alcohol 2-methylbutanol led to higher concentrations of 2-methylbutanal irrespective of beer color. Increased Strecker degradation reactions may explain, at least in part, the higher level of Strecker aldheydes observed in dark beers after aging.",
author = "Brian Gibson and Ville Aumala and Raija-Liisa Heini{\"o} and Atte Mikkelson and Kaisu Honkap{\"a}{\"a}",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1016/j.jcs.2018.08.009",
language = "English",
volume = "83",
pages = "130--138",
journal = "Journal of Cereal Science",
issn = "0733-5210",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Differential evolution of Strecker and non-Strecker aldehydes during aging of pale and dark beers

AU - Gibson, Brian

AU - Aumala, Ville

AU - Heiniö, Raija-Liisa

AU - Mikkelson, Atte

AU - Honkapää, Kaisu

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - To determine characteristics associated with stability, 35 commercial beers were aged naturally. Chemical instability, as determined by increase in aldehyde concentration during aging, was associated with beer color. In particular, darker beers produced disproportionately high levels of Strecker aldehydes. Other attributes of fresh beer showed little or no correlation with stability. The relationship between color and instability was confirmed experimentally by brewing and fermenting worts of different color, which were otherwise identical. Increases were noted also for the non-Strecker aldehydes furfural and hexanal during aging but concentrations were not influenced by beer color. Potential aldehyde precursors: higher alcohols and amino acids, were not higher in the dark worts and the higher aldehyde concentration is therefore not dependent on pre-cursor concentration. Supplementation of the amino acid isoleucine to fresh beer promoted the formation of 2-methylbutanal particularly in dark beers, presumably due to increased Strecker degradation. Conversely, addition of the higher alcohol 2-methylbutanol led to higher concentrations of 2-methylbutanal irrespective of beer color. Increased Strecker degradation reactions may explain, at least in part, the higher level of Strecker aldheydes observed in dark beers after aging.

AB - To determine characteristics associated with stability, 35 commercial beers were aged naturally. Chemical instability, as determined by increase in aldehyde concentration during aging, was associated with beer color. In particular, darker beers produced disproportionately high levels of Strecker aldehydes. Other attributes of fresh beer showed little or no correlation with stability. The relationship between color and instability was confirmed experimentally by brewing and fermenting worts of different color, which were otherwise identical. Increases were noted also for the non-Strecker aldehydes furfural and hexanal during aging but concentrations were not influenced by beer color. Potential aldehyde precursors: higher alcohols and amino acids, were not higher in the dark worts and the higher aldehyde concentration is therefore not dependent on pre-cursor concentration. Supplementation of the amino acid isoleucine to fresh beer promoted the formation of 2-methylbutanal particularly in dark beers, presumably due to increased Strecker degradation. Conversely, addition of the higher alcohol 2-methylbutanol led to higher concentrations of 2-methylbutanal irrespective of beer color. Increased Strecker degradation reactions may explain, at least in part, the higher level of Strecker aldheydes observed in dark beers after aging.

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U2 - 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.08.009

DO - 10.1016/j.jcs.2018.08.009

M3 - Article

VL - 83

SP - 130

EP - 138

JO - Journal of Cereal Science

JF - Journal of Cereal Science

SN - 0733-5210

ER -