Diode laser beam absorption in laser transformation hardening of low alloy steel

H. Pantsar, Veli Kujanpää

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    52 Citations (Scopus)


    Defining and controlling the absorption of the laser beam is important since all of the heating energy is brought to the material through absorption. Even small variations in the absorption change the laser power needed by hundreds of W. In this study the absorption of a diode laser beam to low alloy steel has been measured by a liquid calorimeter and the surface temperature has been measured with a dual wavelength pyrometer. The varied processing parameters were the power intensity of the beam, the interaction time, and the angle between the surface and the optical axis of the laser beam. Surface temperatures during hardening varied from the Ac1 temperature to the melting point. Tests were done with a 3 kW diode laser with a 12×5 mm hardening optic. The absorptivity of a machined clean steel surface ranged from 46% to 72% depending on the processing parameters. Aluminum oxide blasting of the surface increased the relative amount of energy absorbed to the work piece. The coupling rates for blasted surfaces varied from 66% to 81%. Best absorptivity was achieved by applying graphite coating on the surface. Absorptivity values in excess of 85% were measured.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)147 - 153
    Number of pages7
    JournalJournal of Laser Applications
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2004
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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