Direct photolithographic deforming of organomodified siloxane films for micro-optics fabrication

Ari Kärkkäinen, John M. Tamkin, Jeremy D. Rogers, Daniel R. Neal, Osmo Hormi, Ghassan E. Jabbour, Juha Rantala, Michael R. Descour

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Direct photolithographic deforming of hybrid glass films is used to fabricate optical structures. The structure is fabricated in polyethylene-oxide-acrylate modified hybrid glass films with (1) binary and gray-scale photomasks using a mercury UV-lamp exposure and (2) maskless UV-laser patterning. Fabrication of isolated lenslets, lens arrays, and gratings is presented, including the associated exposure patterns. The hybrid glass material yields light-induced deformation peak-to-valley (p.v.) heights up to 12.8 µm with mercury UV-lamp exposure and p.v. deformation heights up to 6.8 µm with 365-nm UV-laser exposure. The fabricated lenslets’ surface data are presented as Zernike-polynomial fit coefficients. Material synthesis and processing-related aspects are examined to understand and control the material’s deformation under exposure. The hybrid glass material exhibits a maximum spectral extinction coefficient of 1.6 × 10-3 µm-1 at wavelengths ranging from 450 to 2200 nm and has a refractive index of 1.52 at 632.8 nm. The fabricated structures exhibit rms surface roughness between 1 and 5 nm.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3988-3998
JournalApplied Optics
Volume41
Issue number19
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Microoptics
siloxanes
optics
Ultraviolet lamps
Mercury vapor lamps
Fabrication
Glass
fabrication
glass
ultraviolet lasers
luminaires
valleys
Photomasks
Lasers
Polyethylene oxides
photomasks
gray scale
Lenses
coefficients
Refractive index

Cite this

Kärkkäinen, A., Tamkin, J. M., Rogers, J. D., Neal, D. R., Hormi, O., Jabbour, G. E., ... Descour, M. R. (2002). Direct photolithographic deforming of organomodified siloxane films for micro-optics fabrication. Applied Optics, 41(19), 3988-3998. https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.41.003988
Kärkkäinen, Ari ; Tamkin, John M. ; Rogers, Jeremy D. ; Neal, Daniel R. ; Hormi, Osmo ; Jabbour, Ghassan E. ; Rantala, Juha ; Descour, Michael R. / Direct photolithographic deforming of organomodified siloxane films for micro-optics fabrication. In: Applied Optics. 2002 ; Vol. 41, No. 19. pp. 3988-3998.
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abstract = "Direct photolithographic deforming of hybrid glass films is used to fabricate optical structures. The structure is fabricated in polyethylene-oxide-acrylate modified hybrid glass films with (1) binary and gray-scale photomasks using a mercury UV-lamp exposure and (2) maskless UV-laser patterning. Fabrication of isolated lenslets, lens arrays, and gratings is presented, including the associated exposure patterns. The hybrid glass material yields light-induced deformation peak-to-valley (p.v.) heights up to 12.8 µm with mercury UV-lamp exposure and p.v. deformation heights up to 6.8 µm with 365-nm UV-laser exposure. The fabricated lenslets’ surface data are presented as Zernike-polynomial fit coefficients. Material synthesis and processing-related aspects are examined to understand and control the material’s deformation under exposure. The hybrid glass material exhibits a maximum spectral extinction coefficient of 1.6 × 10-3 µm-1 at wavelengths ranging from 450 to 2200 nm and has a refractive index of 1.52 at 632.8 nm. The fabricated structures exhibit rms surface roughness between 1 and 5 nm.",
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Kärkkäinen, A, Tamkin, JM, Rogers, JD, Neal, DR, Hormi, O, Jabbour, GE, Rantala, J & Descour, MR 2002, 'Direct photolithographic deforming of organomodified siloxane films for micro-optics fabrication', Applied Optics, vol. 41, no. 19, pp. 3988-3998. https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.41.003988

Direct photolithographic deforming of organomodified siloxane films for micro-optics fabrication. / Kärkkäinen, Ari; Tamkin, John M.; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Neal, Daniel R.; Hormi, Osmo; Jabbour, Ghassan E.; Rantala, Juha; Descour, Michael R.

In: Applied Optics, Vol. 41, No. 19, 2002, p. 3988-3998.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Direct photolithographic deforming of organomodified siloxane films for micro-optics fabrication

AU - Kärkkäinen, Ari

AU - Tamkin, John M.

AU - Rogers, Jeremy D.

AU - Neal, Daniel R.

AU - Hormi, Osmo

AU - Jabbour, Ghassan E.

AU - Rantala, Juha

AU - Descour, Michael R.

PY - 2002

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N2 - Direct photolithographic deforming of hybrid glass films is used to fabricate optical structures. The structure is fabricated in polyethylene-oxide-acrylate modified hybrid glass films with (1) binary and gray-scale photomasks using a mercury UV-lamp exposure and (2) maskless UV-laser patterning. Fabrication of isolated lenslets, lens arrays, and gratings is presented, including the associated exposure patterns. The hybrid glass material yields light-induced deformation peak-to-valley (p.v.) heights up to 12.8 µm with mercury UV-lamp exposure and p.v. deformation heights up to 6.8 µm with 365-nm UV-laser exposure. The fabricated lenslets’ surface data are presented as Zernike-polynomial fit coefficients. Material synthesis and processing-related aspects are examined to understand and control the material’s deformation under exposure. The hybrid glass material exhibits a maximum spectral extinction coefficient of 1.6 × 10-3 µm-1 at wavelengths ranging from 450 to 2200 nm and has a refractive index of 1.52 at 632.8 nm. The fabricated structures exhibit rms surface roughness between 1 and 5 nm.

AB - Direct photolithographic deforming of hybrid glass films is used to fabricate optical structures. The structure is fabricated in polyethylene-oxide-acrylate modified hybrid glass films with (1) binary and gray-scale photomasks using a mercury UV-lamp exposure and (2) maskless UV-laser patterning. Fabrication of isolated lenslets, lens arrays, and gratings is presented, including the associated exposure patterns. The hybrid glass material yields light-induced deformation peak-to-valley (p.v.) heights up to 12.8 µm with mercury UV-lamp exposure and p.v. deformation heights up to 6.8 µm with 365-nm UV-laser exposure. The fabricated lenslets’ surface data are presented as Zernike-polynomial fit coefficients. Material synthesis and processing-related aspects are examined to understand and control the material’s deformation under exposure. The hybrid glass material exhibits a maximum spectral extinction coefficient of 1.6 × 10-3 µm-1 at wavelengths ranging from 450 to 2200 nm and has a refractive index of 1.52 at 632.8 nm. The fabricated structures exhibit rms surface roughness between 1 and 5 nm.

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Kärkkäinen A, Tamkin JM, Rogers JD, Neal DR, Hormi O, Jabbour GE et al. Direct photolithographic deforming of organomodified siloxane films for micro-optics fabrication. Applied Optics. 2002;41(19):3988-3998. https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.41.003988