Direct wafer bonding of ALD Al2O3

Tommi Suni (Corresponding author), Riikka L. Puurunen, Oili Ylivaara, Kimmo Henttinen, Tadashi Ishida, Hiroyuki Fujita

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

    Abstract

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a method to grow conformal thin films. It is a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique using self terminating reactions of two or more reactants. In ALD the thickness control and the thickness uniformity of the films exceeds the capabilities of conventional CVD. Large number of materials can be deposited with ALD, including metals, oxides and nitrides [1].

    Direct wafer bonding of hydrophilic silicon is well-known process to fabricate silicon-on-insulator wafers. In the process two smooth and clean silicon wafers, one typically thermally oxidized, are brought into a contact in air or in vacuum. Subsequent annealing (typically at 1100°C) is used to improve the bond strength. In our research the goal has been to combine these two techniques to modify the properties of SOI wafers.

    To test the process, we bonded thermally oxidized Si wafers covered with Al2O3 to Si wafers having native SiO2, thermally grown SiO2 or Al2O3 surface. The Al2O3 was deposited on thermally oxidized wafers to avoid blistering of the films. Wafers were bonded in a vacuum and subsequently annealed. For some wafers argon plasma activation was used prior contacting [2]. The bond quality was then evaluated by investigating the amount of voids using scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), measuring the bond strength using the crack opening method [3] and taking closer look on the bonded interface with scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM).

    Our experiments showed that it is possible to obtain high quality bonding between Al2O3 and SiO2. The bonding is void-free after annealing at 1100°C (Figure 1)
    and high bond strengths can be obtained (Figure 2). STEM images show lattice planes on Al2O3 which indicates that the amorphous aluminium oxide had crystallized during the bond annealing at 900°C (Figure 3, top right and bottom left images). Argon plasma activation seemed to have only small or no influence on the bond strength.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationIEEE Workshop on Low Temperature Bonding for 3D Integration Book of Abstracts
    Pages211-223
    Publication statusPublished - 19 Jan 2010
    Event2nd International IEEE Workshop on Low Temperature Bonding for 3D Integration - The University of Tokyo, Japan
    Duration: 19 Jan 201020 Jan 2010
    http://www.3dwb.org/

    Workshop

    Workshop2nd International IEEE Workshop on Low Temperature Bonding for 3D Integration
    CountryJapan
    Period19/01/1020/01/10
    Internet address

    Fingerprint

    atomic layer epitaxy
    wafers
    argon plasma
    annealing
    scanning
    voids
    silicon
    electron microscopes
    vapor deposition
    activation
    acoustic microscopes
    metal nitrides
    vacuum
    SOI (semiconductors)
    stopping
    metal oxides
    cracks
    aluminum oxides
    insulators
    air

    Cite this

    Suni, T., Puurunen, R. L., Ylivaara, O., Henttinen, K., Ishida, T., & Fujita, H. (2010). Direct wafer bonding of ALD Al2O3. In IEEE Workshop on Low Temperature Bonding for 3D Integration Book of Abstracts (pp. 211-223)
    Suni, Tommi ; Puurunen, Riikka L. ; Ylivaara, Oili ; Henttinen, Kimmo ; Ishida, Tadashi ; Fujita, Hiroyuki. / Direct wafer bonding of ALD Al2O3. IEEE Workshop on Low Temperature Bonding for 3D Integration Book of Abstracts. 2010. pp. 211-223
    @inbook{a8d987e3de01484a97da104a42065c66,
    title = "Direct wafer bonding of ALD Al2O3",
    abstract = "Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a method to grow conformal thin films. It is a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique using self terminating reactions of two or more reactants. In ALD the thickness control and the thickness uniformity of the films exceeds the capabilities of conventional CVD. Large number of materials can be deposited with ALD, including metals, oxides and nitrides [1].Direct wafer bonding of hydrophilic silicon is well-known process to fabricate silicon-on-insulator wafers. In the process two smooth and clean silicon wafers, one typically thermally oxidized, are brought into a contact in air or in vacuum. Subsequent annealing (typically at 1100°C) is used to improve the bond strength. In our research the goal has been to combine these two techniques to modify the properties of SOI wafers.To test the process, we bonded thermally oxidized Si wafers covered with Al2O3 to Si wafers having native SiO2, thermally grown SiO2 or Al2O3 surface. The Al2O3 was deposited on thermally oxidized wafers to avoid blistering of the films. Wafers were bonded in a vacuum and subsequently annealed. For some wafers argon plasma activation was used prior contacting [2]. The bond quality was then evaluated by investigating the amount of voids using scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), measuring the bond strength using the crack opening method [3] and taking closer look on the bonded interface with scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM).Our experiments showed that it is possible to obtain high quality bonding between Al2O3 and SiO2. The bonding is void-free after annealing at 1100°C (Figure 1)and high bond strengths can be obtained (Figure 2). STEM images show lattice planes on Al2O3 which indicates that the amorphous aluminium oxide had crystallized during the bond annealing at 900°C (Figure 3, top right and bottom left images). Argon plasma activation seemed to have only small or no influence on the bond strength.",
    author = "Tommi Suni and Puurunen, {Riikka L.} and Oili Ylivaara and Kimmo Henttinen and Tadashi Ishida and Hiroyuki Fujita",
    note = "Project 23787 ALEBOND",
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    Suni, T, Puurunen, RL, Ylivaara, O, Henttinen, K, Ishida, T & Fujita, H 2010, Direct wafer bonding of ALD Al2O3. in IEEE Workshop on Low Temperature Bonding for 3D Integration Book of Abstracts. pp. 211-223, 2nd International IEEE Workshop on Low Temperature Bonding for 3D Integration, Japan, 19/01/10.

    Direct wafer bonding of ALD Al2O3. / Suni, Tommi (Corresponding author); Puurunen, Riikka L.; Ylivaara, Oili; Henttinen, Kimmo; Ishida, Tadashi; Fujita, Hiroyuki.

    IEEE Workshop on Low Temperature Bonding for 3D Integration Book of Abstracts. 2010. p. 211-223.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

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    T1 - Direct wafer bonding of ALD Al2O3

    AU - Suni, Tommi

    AU - Puurunen, Riikka L.

    AU - Ylivaara, Oili

    AU - Henttinen, Kimmo

    AU - Ishida, Tadashi

    AU - Fujita, Hiroyuki

    N1 - Project 23787 ALEBOND

    PY - 2010/1/19

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    N2 - Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a method to grow conformal thin films. It is a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique using self terminating reactions of two or more reactants. In ALD the thickness control and the thickness uniformity of the films exceeds the capabilities of conventional CVD. Large number of materials can be deposited with ALD, including metals, oxides and nitrides [1].Direct wafer bonding of hydrophilic silicon is well-known process to fabricate silicon-on-insulator wafers. In the process two smooth and clean silicon wafers, one typically thermally oxidized, are brought into a contact in air or in vacuum. Subsequent annealing (typically at 1100°C) is used to improve the bond strength. In our research the goal has been to combine these two techniques to modify the properties of SOI wafers.To test the process, we bonded thermally oxidized Si wafers covered with Al2O3 to Si wafers having native SiO2, thermally grown SiO2 or Al2O3 surface. The Al2O3 was deposited on thermally oxidized wafers to avoid blistering of the films. Wafers were bonded in a vacuum and subsequently annealed. For some wafers argon plasma activation was used prior contacting [2]. The bond quality was then evaluated by investigating the amount of voids using scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), measuring the bond strength using the crack opening method [3] and taking closer look on the bonded interface with scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM).Our experiments showed that it is possible to obtain high quality bonding between Al2O3 and SiO2. The bonding is void-free after annealing at 1100°C (Figure 1)and high bond strengths can be obtained (Figure 2). STEM images show lattice planes on Al2O3 which indicates that the amorphous aluminium oxide had crystallized during the bond annealing at 900°C (Figure 3, top right and bottom left images). Argon plasma activation seemed to have only small or no influence on the bond strength.

    AB - Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a method to grow conformal thin films. It is a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique using self terminating reactions of two or more reactants. In ALD the thickness control and the thickness uniformity of the films exceeds the capabilities of conventional CVD. Large number of materials can be deposited with ALD, including metals, oxides and nitrides [1].Direct wafer bonding of hydrophilic silicon is well-known process to fabricate silicon-on-insulator wafers. In the process two smooth and clean silicon wafers, one typically thermally oxidized, are brought into a contact in air or in vacuum. Subsequent annealing (typically at 1100°C) is used to improve the bond strength. In our research the goal has been to combine these two techniques to modify the properties of SOI wafers.To test the process, we bonded thermally oxidized Si wafers covered with Al2O3 to Si wafers having native SiO2, thermally grown SiO2 or Al2O3 surface. The Al2O3 was deposited on thermally oxidized wafers to avoid blistering of the films. Wafers were bonded in a vacuum and subsequently annealed. For some wafers argon plasma activation was used prior contacting [2]. The bond quality was then evaluated by investigating the amount of voids using scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), measuring the bond strength using the crack opening method [3] and taking closer look on the bonded interface with scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM).Our experiments showed that it is possible to obtain high quality bonding between Al2O3 and SiO2. The bonding is void-free after annealing at 1100°C (Figure 1)and high bond strengths can be obtained (Figure 2). STEM images show lattice planes on Al2O3 which indicates that the amorphous aluminium oxide had crystallized during the bond annealing at 900°C (Figure 3, top right and bottom left images). Argon plasma activation seemed to have only small or no influence on the bond strength.

    M3 - Conference abstract in proceedings

    SP - 211

    EP - 223

    BT - IEEE Workshop on Low Temperature Bonding for 3D Integration Book of Abstracts

    ER -

    Suni T, Puurunen RL, Ylivaara O, Henttinen K, Ishida T, Fujita H. Direct wafer bonding of ALD Al2O3. In IEEE Workshop on Low Temperature Bonding for 3D Integration Book of Abstracts. 2010. p. 211-223