Discrete ejector control solution design, characterization, and verification in a 5 kW PEMFC system

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    An ejector primary gas flow control solution based on three solenoid valves is designed, implemented and tested in a 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system with ejector-based anode gas recirculation. The robust and cost effective combination of the tested flow control method and a single ejector is shown to achieve adequate anode gas recirculation rate on a wide PEMFC load range. In addition, the effect of anode gas inert content on ejector performance in the 5 kW PEMFC system is studied at varying load and anode pressure levels. Results show that increasing the inert content increases recirculated anode gas mass flow rate but decreases both the molar flow rate and the anode inlet humidity. Finally, the PEMFC power ramp-rate limitations are studied using two fuel supply strategies: 1) advancing fuel supply and venting out extra fuel and 2) not advancing fuel supply but instead using a large anode volume. Results indicate that the power of the present PEMFC system can be ramped from 1 kW to 4.2 kW within few hundred milliseconds using either of these strategies.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)16760-16772
    JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
    Issue number26
    Publication statusPublished - 29 Jun 2017
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    This work has been supported by the Strategic Research Council at the Academy of Finland, project Transition to a Resource Efficient and Climate Neutral Electricity System (EL-TRAN) (2015–17) (no. 293437). This research has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013) for the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Technology Initiative under grant agreement no. 621218.


    • anode gas recirculation
    • ejector
    • ejector control
    • inert build-up
    • PEMFC
    • power ramp-up


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