Berries contain a wide range of phenolic compounds in different conjugated forms, a fact that makes their simultaneous analysis a difficult task. In this work, soluble and insoluble phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in 18 species of berries by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detection. The analytical results and literature data were used for the identification of the predominant conjugated hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonol glycosides, and anthocyanins in berries from six families, viz. Grossulariaceae, Ericaceae, Rosaceae, Empetraceae, Elaeagnaceae, and Caprifoliaceae. The study showed distinctive similarities among berry species of the same family in the distribution of conjugated forms of phenolic compounds but differences in chromatographic profiles of conjugates and compositions of aglycones especially in the case of anthocyanins. The chromatographic profiles of chokeberry and the related sweet rowanberry (Rosaceae) were exceptionally similar. These data are informative to studies on the authenticity of berry raw materials as well as to those on the evaluation of berries as sources of phenolic compounds.