Do large intestinal events explain the protective effects of whole grain foods against type 2 diabetes?

Jenni Lappi, Marjukka Kolehmainen, Hannu Mykkänen, Kaisa Poutanen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Consumption of whole grain foods has been associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. Insulin sensitivity and inflammation are key mechanisms in the development of type 2 diabetes, but the cause of the protective effects of whole grains is not known. In this review, we search for evidence to support the hypothesis of a link between whole grains, large intestinal events, and peripheral inflammation. Due to the unique structure and composition of the grain fiber complex, fermentation in the large intestine is probably an important mediator of the effects of whole grains. Fermentation of grain fiber takes place throughout the large intestine affecting beneficially the composition of gut microbiota, hence decreasing the permeability of gut barrier. Improved gut barrier function reduces leaking of endotoxic bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) into the circulation. Lower concentration of LPS in blood seems to alleviate peripheral inflammation. Fermentation of grain fiber also leads to continuous supply and absorption of metabolites such as short chain fatty acids and ferulic acid derivatives which may have anti-inflammatory effects. These phenomena, mainly based on in vitro and animal studies, are associated with fermentation of grain fiber and improve insulin sensitivity, which over time may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes. To test these mechanisms, more well-designed human studies are needed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)631-640
Number of pages10
JournalCritical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Volume53
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

whole grain foods
Medical problems
noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Fermentation
protective effect
dietary fiber
fermentation
Food
ferulic acid
inflammation
Large Intestine
large intestine
Inflammation
insulin resistance
lipopolysaccharides
Lipopolysaccharides
Insulin Resistance
digestive system
Volatile Fatty Acids

Keywords

  • whole grains
  • fermentation
  • gut barrier
  • gut microbiota
  • inflammation

Cite this

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title = "Do large intestinal events explain the protective effects of whole grain foods against type 2 diabetes?",
abstract = "Consumption of whole grain foods has been associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. Insulin sensitivity and inflammation are key mechanisms in the development of type 2 diabetes, but the cause of the protective effects of whole grains is not known. In this review, we search for evidence to support the hypothesis of a link between whole grains, large intestinal events, and peripheral inflammation. Due to the unique structure and composition of the grain fiber complex, fermentation in the large intestine is probably an important mediator of the effects of whole grains. Fermentation of grain fiber takes place throughout the large intestine affecting beneficially the composition of gut microbiota, hence decreasing the permeability of gut barrier. Improved gut barrier function reduces leaking of endotoxic bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) into the circulation. Lower concentration of LPS in blood seems to alleviate peripheral inflammation. Fermentation of grain fiber also leads to continuous supply and absorption of metabolites such as short chain fatty acids and ferulic acid derivatives which may have anti-inflammatory effects. These phenomena, mainly based on in vitro and animal studies, are associated with fermentation of grain fiber and improve insulin sensitivity, which over time may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes. To test these mechanisms, more well-designed human studies are needed.",
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Do large intestinal events explain the protective effects of whole grain foods against type 2 diabetes? / Lappi, Jenni; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa.

In: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 53, No. 6, 2013, p. 631-640.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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PY - 2013

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AB - Consumption of whole grain foods has been associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. Insulin sensitivity and inflammation are key mechanisms in the development of type 2 diabetes, but the cause of the protective effects of whole grains is not known. In this review, we search for evidence to support the hypothesis of a link between whole grains, large intestinal events, and peripheral inflammation. Due to the unique structure and composition of the grain fiber complex, fermentation in the large intestine is probably an important mediator of the effects of whole grains. Fermentation of grain fiber takes place throughout the large intestine affecting beneficially the composition of gut microbiota, hence decreasing the permeability of gut barrier. Improved gut barrier function reduces leaking of endotoxic bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) into the circulation. Lower concentration of LPS in blood seems to alleviate peripheral inflammation. Fermentation of grain fiber also leads to continuous supply and absorption of metabolites such as short chain fatty acids and ferulic acid derivatives which may have anti-inflammatory effects. These phenomena, mainly based on in vitro and animal studies, are associated with fermentation of grain fiber and improve insulin sensitivity, which over time may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes. To test these mechanisms, more well-designed human studies are needed.

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