Food structure and cephalic phase factors are hypothesized to contribute to postprandial satiety in addition to established food properties such as energy content, energy density, and macronutrient and fibre composition of a preload. This study aimed to evaluate if the structure of rye products has an impact on subjective feelings of satiety, and whether cephalic phase factors including oral processing, satiety expectations and perceived pleasantness modulate the interaction. Four wholegrain rye based samples (extruded flakes and puffs, bread and smoothie) were studied in terms of texture characteristics, in vivo oral processing, and expected satiety (n = 26) and satiety as well as perceived pleasantness (n = 16) (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02554162). The vast textural differences between products were reflected in mastication process, perceived pleasantness and satiety expectations. Extruded products required the most intensive mastication. Rye puffs and rye bread which were characterised by a solid and porous structure, and showed better satiety effect in the early postprandial phase compared to other products. Mastication effort interacted with satiety response. However, the products requiring the most intense mastication effort were not the most satiating ones. It seems that there are some food structure related factors that influence both mastication process and postprandial satiety, the mastication process itself not being the mediating factor. Higher palatability seems to weaken postprandial satiety response.
- food structure
- oral processing