DoA Estimation Using Compact CRLH Leaky-Wave Antennas: Novel Algorithms and Measured Performance

H. Paaso, N. Gulati, D. Patron, A. Hakkarainen, J. Werner, K. R. Dandekar, M. Valkama, A. Mämmelä

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    3 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Traditional direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation algorithms for multi-element antenna arrays are not directly applicable to reconfigurable antennas due to inherent design and operating differences between antenna arrays and reconfigurable antennas. In this paper, we propose novel modifications to existing DoA algorithms and show how these can be adapted for realtime DoA estimation using two-port composite right/left-handed (CRLH) reconfigurable leaky-wave antennas (LWAs). First, we propose a single/two-port multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm and derive the corresponding steering vector for reconfigurable LWAs. We also present the power pattern cross correlation (PPCC) algorithm which is based on finding the maximum correlation between the measured radiation patterns and the received powers. For all algorithms, we show how to simultaneously use both ports of the two-port LWA in order to improve the DoA estimation accuracy and, at the same time, reduce the scanning time for the arriving signals. Moreover, we formulate the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for MUSIC-based DoA estimation with LWAs and present an extensive performance evaluation of MUSIC algorithm based on numerical simulations. Additionally, these results are compared to DoA estimation with conventional antenna arrays. Finally, we experimentally evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms in an indoor multipath wireless environment with both line-of-sight (LoS) and non-line-of-sight (NLoS) components. Our results demonstrate that DoA estimation of the received signal can be successfully performed by using the two-port CRLH-LWA, even in the presence of severe multipath.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number7979544
    Pages (from-to)4836-4849
    Number of pages14
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
    Volume65
    Issue number9
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2017
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Direction of arrival
    arrivals
    antennas
    Antennas
    composite materials
    Composite materials
    antenna arrays
    Antenna arrays
    Cramer-Rao bounds
    visual perception
    cross correlation
    line of sight
    Scanning
    scanning
    evaluation
    Computer simulation
    radiation

    Keywords

    • antenna arrays
    • antenna measurements
    • Cramer-Rao bound
    • direction-of-arrival estimation
    • directional antennas
    • directive antennas
    • estimation
    • multiple signal classification
    • measurements
    • cramer-Rao bound (CRB)
    • leaky-wave antennas (LWAs)

    Cite this

    Paaso, H. ; Gulati, N. ; Patron, D. ; Hakkarainen, A. ; Werner, J. ; Dandekar, K. R. ; Valkama, M. ; Mämmelä, A. / DoA Estimation Using Compact CRLH Leaky-Wave Antennas: Novel Algorithms and Measured Performance. In: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation. 2017 ; Vol. 65, No. 9. pp. 4836-4849.
    @article{71870eb6f9e3423db9f6168ece3e4acc,
    title = "DoA Estimation Using Compact CRLH Leaky-Wave Antennas: Novel Algorithms and Measured Performance",
    abstract = "Traditional direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation algorithms for multi-element antenna arrays are not directly applicable to reconfigurable antennas due to inherent design and operating differences between antenna arrays and reconfigurable antennas. In this paper, we propose novel modifications to existing DoA algorithms and show how these can be adapted for realtime DoA estimation using two-port composite right/left-handed (CRLH) reconfigurable leaky-wave antennas (LWAs). First, we propose a single/two-port multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm and derive the corresponding steering vector for reconfigurable LWAs. We also present the power pattern cross correlation (PPCC) algorithm which is based on finding the maximum correlation between the measured radiation patterns and the received powers. For all algorithms, we show how to simultaneously use both ports of the two-port LWA in order to improve the DoA estimation accuracy and, at the same time, reduce the scanning time for the arriving signals. Moreover, we formulate the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for MUSIC-based DoA estimation with LWAs and present an extensive performance evaluation of MUSIC algorithm based on numerical simulations. Additionally, these results are compared to DoA estimation with conventional antenna arrays. Finally, we experimentally evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms in an indoor multipath wireless environment with both line-of-sight (LoS) and non-line-of-sight (NLoS) components. Our results demonstrate that DoA estimation of the received signal can be successfully performed by using the two-port CRLH-LWA, even in the presence of severe multipath.",
    keywords = "antenna arrays, antenna measurements, Cramer-Rao bound, direction-of-arrival estimation, directional antennas, directive antennas, estimation, multiple signal classification, measurements, cramer-Rao bound (CRB), leaky-wave antennas (LWAs)",
    author = "H. Paaso and N. Gulati and D. Patron and A. Hakkarainen and J. Werner and Dandekar, {K. R.} and M. Valkama and A. M{\"a}mmel{\"a}",
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    DoA Estimation Using Compact CRLH Leaky-Wave Antennas: Novel Algorithms and Measured Performance. / Paaso, H.; Gulati, N.; Patron, D.; Hakkarainen, A.; Werner, J.; Dandekar, K. R.; Valkama, M.; Mämmelä, A.

    In: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 65, No. 9, 7979544, 01.09.2017, p. 4836-4849.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - DoA Estimation Using Compact CRLH Leaky-Wave Antennas: Novel Algorithms and Measured Performance

    AU - Paaso, H.

    AU - Gulati, N.

    AU - Patron, D.

    AU - Hakkarainen, A.

    AU - Werner, J.

    AU - Dandekar, K. R.

    AU - Valkama, M.

    AU - Mämmelä, A.

    PY - 2017/9/1

    Y1 - 2017/9/1

    N2 - Traditional direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation algorithms for multi-element antenna arrays are not directly applicable to reconfigurable antennas due to inherent design and operating differences between antenna arrays and reconfigurable antennas. In this paper, we propose novel modifications to existing DoA algorithms and show how these can be adapted for realtime DoA estimation using two-port composite right/left-handed (CRLH) reconfigurable leaky-wave antennas (LWAs). First, we propose a single/two-port multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm and derive the corresponding steering vector for reconfigurable LWAs. We also present the power pattern cross correlation (PPCC) algorithm which is based on finding the maximum correlation between the measured radiation patterns and the received powers. For all algorithms, we show how to simultaneously use both ports of the two-port LWA in order to improve the DoA estimation accuracy and, at the same time, reduce the scanning time for the arriving signals. Moreover, we formulate the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for MUSIC-based DoA estimation with LWAs and present an extensive performance evaluation of MUSIC algorithm based on numerical simulations. Additionally, these results are compared to DoA estimation with conventional antenna arrays. Finally, we experimentally evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms in an indoor multipath wireless environment with both line-of-sight (LoS) and non-line-of-sight (NLoS) components. Our results demonstrate that DoA estimation of the received signal can be successfully performed by using the two-port CRLH-LWA, even in the presence of severe multipath.

    AB - Traditional direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation algorithms for multi-element antenna arrays are not directly applicable to reconfigurable antennas due to inherent design and operating differences between antenna arrays and reconfigurable antennas. In this paper, we propose novel modifications to existing DoA algorithms and show how these can be adapted for realtime DoA estimation using two-port composite right/left-handed (CRLH) reconfigurable leaky-wave antennas (LWAs). First, we propose a single/two-port multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm and derive the corresponding steering vector for reconfigurable LWAs. We also present the power pattern cross correlation (PPCC) algorithm which is based on finding the maximum correlation between the measured radiation patterns and the received powers. For all algorithms, we show how to simultaneously use both ports of the two-port LWA in order to improve the DoA estimation accuracy and, at the same time, reduce the scanning time for the arriving signals. Moreover, we formulate the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for MUSIC-based DoA estimation with LWAs and present an extensive performance evaluation of MUSIC algorithm based on numerical simulations. Additionally, these results are compared to DoA estimation with conventional antenna arrays. Finally, we experimentally evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms in an indoor multipath wireless environment with both line-of-sight (LoS) and non-line-of-sight (NLoS) components. Our results demonstrate that DoA estimation of the received signal can be successfully performed by using the two-port CRLH-LWA, even in the presence of severe multipath.

    KW - antenna arrays

    KW - antenna measurements

    KW - Cramer-Rao bound

    KW - direction-of-arrival estimation

    KW - directional antennas

    KW - directive antennas

    KW - estimation

    KW - multiple signal classification

    KW - measurements

    KW - cramer-Rao bound (CRB)

    KW - leaky-wave antennas (LWAs)

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85028839957&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1109/TAP.2017.2724584

    DO - 10.1109/TAP.2017.2724584

    M3 - Article

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    EP - 4849

    JO - IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation

    JF - IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation

    SN - 0018-926X

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    ER -