DoA Estimation Using Compact CRLH Leaky-Wave Antennas: Novel Algorithms and Measured Performance

Henna Paaso, Nikhil Gulati, Damiano Patron, Aki Hakkarainen, Janis Werner, Kapil R. Dandekar, Mikko Valkama, Aarne Mämmelä

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    24 Citations (Scopus)


    Traditional direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation algorithms for multi-element antenna arrays are not directly applicable to reconfigurable antennas due to inherent design and operating differences between antenna arrays and reconfigurable antennas. In this paper, we propose novel modifications to existing DoA algorithms and show how these can be adapted for realtime DoA estimation using two-port composite right/left-handed (CRLH) reconfigurable leaky-wave antennas (LWAs). First, we propose a single/two-port multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm and derive the corresponding steering vector for reconfigurable LWAs. We also present the power pattern cross correlation (PPCC) algorithm which is based on finding the maximum correlation between the measured radiation patterns and the received powers. For all algorithms, we show how to simultaneously use both ports of the two-port LWA in order to improve the DoA estimation accuracy and, at the same time, reduce the scanning time for the arriving signals. Moreover, we formulate the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) for MUSIC-based DoA estimation with LWAs and present an extensive performance evaluation of MUSIC algorithm based on numerical simulations. Additionally, these results are compared to DoA estimation with conventional antenna arrays. Finally, we experimentally evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms in an indoor multipath wireless environment with both line-of-sight (LoS) and non-line-of-sight (NLoS) components. Our results demonstrate that DoA estimation of the received signal can be successfully performed by using the two-port CRLH-LWA, even in the presence of severe multipath.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number7979544
    Pages (from-to)4836-4849
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
    Issue number9
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2017
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    This work was supported in part by the VTT Technical Research Center of Finland and the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation within the framework of the Reconfigurable Antenna-Based Enhancement of Dynamic Spectrum Access Algorithms project, in part by the Doctoral Program of the President of Tampere University of Technology, in part by the Academy of Finland under Grant 288670, and in part by the U.S. National Science Foundation as part of the Wireless Innovation between Finland and United States partnership under Grant CNS-1147838.


    • antenna arrays
    • antenna measurements
    • Cramer-Rao bound
    • direction-of-arrival estimation
    • directional antennas
    • directive antennas
    • estimation
    • multiple signal classification
    • measurements
    • cramer-Rao bound (CRB)
    • leaky-wave antennas (LWAs)


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