Drivers’ intentions to use different functionalities of conditionally automated cars: A survey study of 18,631 drivers from 17 countries

Tyron Louw (Corresponding Author), Ruth Madigan, Yee Mun Lee, Sina Nordhoff, Esko Lehtonen, Satu Innamaa, Fanny Malin, Afsane Bjorvatn, Natasha Merat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
32 Downloads (Pure)


A number of studies have investigated the acceptance of conditionally automated cars (CACs). However, in the future, CACs will comprise of several separate Automated Driving Functions (ADFs), which will allow the vehicle to operate in different Operational Design Domains (ODDs). Driving in different environments places differing demands on drivers. Yet, little research has focused on drivers’ intention to use different functions, and how this may vary by their age, gender, country of residence, and previous experience with Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS). Data from an online survey of 18,631 car drivers from 17 countries (8 European) was used in this study to investigate intention to use an ADF in one of four different ODDs: Motorways, Traffic Jams, Urban Roads, and Parking. Intention to use was high across all ADFs, but significantly higher for Parking than all others. Overall, intention to use was highest amongst respondents who were younger (<39), male, and had previous experience with ADAS. However, these trends varied widely across countries, and for the different ADFs. Respondents from countries with the lowest Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and highest road death rates had the highest intention to use all ADFs, while the opposite was found for countries with high GDP and low road death rates. These results suggest that development and deployment strategies for CACs may need to be tailored to different markets, to ensure uptake and safe use.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12054
Number of pages19
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 17 Nov 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission Horizon 2020 program, under the project L3Pilot, grant agreement number 723051.


  • Acceptance
  • Automated driving
  • Individual differences
  • Survey


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