Droplet microfluidics on a planar surface: Dissertation

Altti Torkkeli

Research output: ThesisDissertation

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This work reports on the modelling of, and experiments on, a method in which liquid is transported as droplets on a planar hydrophobic surface with no moving parts, merely through electrostatic forces generated by the underlying electrodes. Two-directional transportation along a straight electrode path and across a junction, fusion of two droplets and methods for importing, exporting and filtering of water droplets were demonstrated, and can be used as basic functions of a lab-on-a-chip type microfluidic system. In this work, the electrostatic droplet actuation is for the first time demonstrated on superhydrophobic surfaces. Such surfaces are composed of air-filled pores and exhibit a very low droplet sliding resistance due to reduced contact angle hysteresis and a high water contact angle (usually > 150°). This work shows that superhydrophobic surfaces can be used to reduce the minimum voltage and to increase the maximum speed under certain conditions, but there are some harmful side-effects. First of all, the electrostatic pressure can push water into the surface pores, which hinders actuation. The phenomenon can also be treated as a vertical electrowetting effect. Another drawback is that the use of superhydrophobic surfaces makes actuation more critical to the properties of the liquid. For example, actuation of biological buffer solutions was not successful. For these reasons, it is concluded that it is more beneficial to use a smooth surface with low hysteresis than a superhydrophobic surface in droplet actuation. Electrostatic droplet actuation is a potential method for manipulating liquid on a microscopic scale, but there is still work to do. This work contains a detailed examination of the droplet actuation mechanism, and trapping of charges in the solid-liquid interface is found to be the most severe problem that needs to be solved.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor Degree
Awarding Institution
  • Aalto University
Award date3 Oct 2003
Place of PublicationEspoo
Publisher
Print ISBNs951-38-6237-2
Electronic ISBNs951-38-6238-0
Publication statusPublished - 2003
MoE publication typeG4 Doctoral dissertation (monograph)

Fingerprint

actuation
electrostatics
liquids
hysteresis
water
porosity
electrodes
liquid-solid interfaces
sliding
buffers
examination
fusion
trapping
chips
air
electric potential

Keywords

  • microfluidics
  • lab-on-a-chip
  • electrostatic droplet actuation
  • electrowetting
  • superhydrophobic surface
  • MEMS

Cite this

Torkkeli, A. (2003). Droplet microfluidics on a planar surface: Dissertation. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
Torkkeli, Altti. / Droplet microfluidics on a planar surface : Dissertation. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2003. 217 p.
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keywords = "microfluidics, lab-on-a-chip, electrostatic droplet actuation, electrowetting, superhydrophobic surface, MEMS",
author = "Altti Torkkeli",
note = "Project code: E7SU00393",
year = "2003",
language = "English",
isbn = "951-38-6237-2",
series = "VTT Publications",
publisher = "VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland",
number = "504",
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Torkkeli, A 2003, 'Droplet microfluidics on a planar surface: Dissertation', Doctor Degree, Aalto University, Espoo.

Droplet microfluidics on a planar surface : Dissertation. / Torkkeli, Altti.

Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2003. 217 p.

Research output: ThesisDissertation

TY - THES

T1 - Droplet microfluidics on a planar surface

T2 - Dissertation

AU - Torkkeli, Altti

N1 - Project code: E7SU00393

PY - 2003

Y1 - 2003

N2 - This work reports on the modelling of, and experiments on, a method in which liquid is transported as droplets on a planar hydrophobic surface with no moving parts, merely through electrostatic forces generated by the underlying electrodes. Two-directional transportation along a straight electrode path and across a junction, fusion of two droplets and methods for importing, exporting and filtering of water droplets were demonstrated, and can be used as basic functions of a lab-on-a-chip type microfluidic system. In this work, the electrostatic droplet actuation is for the first time demonstrated on superhydrophobic surfaces. Such surfaces are composed of air-filled pores and exhibit a very low droplet sliding resistance due to reduced contact angle hysteresis and a high water contact angle (usually > 150°). This work shows that superhydrophobic surfaces can be used to reduce the minimum voltage and to increase the maximum speed under certain conditions, but there are some harmful side-effects. First of all, the electrostatic pressure can push water into the surface pores, which hinders actuation. The phenomenon can also be treated as a vertical electrowetting effect. Another drawback is that the use of superhydrophobic surfaces makes actuation more critical to the properties of the liquid. For example, actuation of biological buffer solutions was not successful. For these reasons, it is concluded that it is more beneficial to use a smooth surface with low hysteresis than a superhydrophobic surface in droplet actuation. Electrostatic droplet actuation is a potential method for manipulating liquid on a microscopic scale, but there is still work to do. This work contains a detailed examination of the droplet actuation mechanism, and trapping of charges in the solid-liquid interface is found to be the most severe problem that needs to be solved.

AB - This work reports on the modelling of, and experiments on, a method in which liquid is transported as droplets on a planar hydrophobic surface with no moving parts, merely through electrostatic forces generated by the underlying electrodes. Two-directional transportation along a straight electrode path and across a junction, fusion of two droplets and methods for importing, exporting and filtering of water droplets were demonstrated, and can be used as basic functions of a lab-on-a-chip type microfluidic system. In this work, the electrostatic droplet actuation is for the first time demonstrated on superhydrophobic surfaces. Such surfaces are composed of air-filled pores and exhibit a very low droplet sliding resistance due to reduced contact angle hysteresis and a high water contact angle (usually > 150°). This work shows that superhydrophobic surfaces can be used to reduce the minimum voltage and to increase the maximum speed under certain conditions, but there are some harmful side-effects. First of all, the electrostatic pressure can push water into the surface pores, which hinders actuation. The phenomenon can also be treated as a vertical electrowetting effect. Another drawback is that the use of superhydrophobic surfaces makes actuation more critical to the properties of the liquid. For example, actuation of biological buffer solutions was not successful. For these reasons, it is concluded that it is more beneficial to use a smooth surface with low hysteresis than a superhydrophobic surface in droplet actuation. Electrostatic droplet actuation is a potential method for manipulating liquid on a microscopic scale, but there is still work to do. This work contains a detailed examination of the droplet actuation mechanism, and trapping of charges in the solid-liquid interface is found to be the most severe problem that needs to be solved.

KW - microfluidics

KW - lab-on-a-chip

KW - electrostatic droplet actuation

KW - electrowetting

KW - superhydrophobic surface

KW - MEMS

M3 - Dissertation

SN - 951-38-6237-2

T3 - VTT Publications

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

ER -

Torkkeli A. Droplet microfluidics on a planar surface: Dissertation. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2003. 217 p.