Durable and sustainable smart tags for identity management and condition monitoring: Case study for reusable packaging and recyclable data carriers

Liisa Hakola (Corresponding Author), Elina Hakola, Sarianna Palola, Anna Tenhunen-Lunkka, Jussi H. Lahtinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Reusable packaging has been used as a case study for development of durable and sustainable smart tags that can provide both identity management and potentially also condition monitoring capabilities. Four different smart tag technologies have been investigated, including laser engraved 2D bar codes, printed 2D bar codes with combined temperature indicator, printed NFC (Near-Field Communication) tags and RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags as labels. All technologies showed excellent durability towards repeated washing and heating when protective layers were used. SWOT analysis was also carried out to weight the advantages and disadvantages of the different technologies summarizing the choice of the technology per use and end-of-life requirements. Sustainability of the investigated technologies is discussed from the smart tag recyclability perspective and the challenges that can be seen related to the use of electronic functionalities and/or plastic-based protective layers.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-121
Number of pages15
JournalPackaging Technology and Science
Volume37
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • circularity
  • indicator
  • reuse
  • bar code
  • smart tag
  • circular economy
  • packaging
  • sensor
  • sustainability
  • functional ink

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