Dynamic Co-Simulation of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and the Balance of Plant (BoP) by Combining an SOFC Model with the BoP-Modelling Tool APROS

Andreas Gubner, Jaakko Saarinen, Jukka Ylijoki, Dieter Froning, Andrea Kind, Matias Halinen, Matti Noponen, Jari Kiviaho

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review


    An increasing demand for co-simulation capabilities for modelling a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack as a part of a fuel cell system is caused by the recent progress in developing planar SOFC stacks. These SOFC stacks need balancing with a support system composed of all process engineering components, e.g. heat exchangers, of the targeted power plant application, and modelling can assume an important role in the design process of that application's fuel cell system. However, any modelling effort will only be relevant if the SOFC behaviour can be simulated with a reasonable degree of detail so that the results can provide useful design information. In order to facilitate the SOFC power plant development efforts the VTT Technical Research Centre (VTT), the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (FZJ) and Wärtsilä Corporation have conducted a joint project in 2005 for redesigning the interfaces of a one dimensional (1D) SOFC modelling software tool provided by the FZJ to match the interfaces of a systems modelling software tool called Advanced Process Simulation environment APROSr developed by VTT and Fortum Nuclear Services. The1D SOFC model can now be used as a plug-in software component for APROSr. This contribution introduces the resulting co-simulation environment and discusses some simulations of an example application. These simulations have shown that local overheating can be a serious issue if it cannot be addressed by means of appropriate systems controls: After introducing an instant current jump from 0.2 A cm-2 to 0.4 A cm-2, the maximum stack temperature reached a peak value of 830 °C starting from 809 °C. A typical load change time from one steady state to a new one needed by the current F-Design stack developed by FZJ after an instant current jump is typically between 60 min and 90 min. However, the presented results show stabilisation time spans of 6 h (current jumps) and even 12 h (current drops). Hence it may be important to note that the stack is not responsible for the great thermal mass of the system alone. It seems the cathode side heat exchangers must also be optimised in terms of weight in order to arrive at a system that reaches a new steady state rapidly after a load change.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationLucerne Fuel Cell Forum 2006 (EFCF 2006)
    Subtitle of host publicationLucerne, Switzerland, 3 - 7 July 2006
    PublisherEuropean Fuel Cell Forum AG
    Publication statusPublished - 2006
    MoE publication typeNot Eligible


    Dive into the research topics of 'Dynamic Co-Simulation of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and the Balance of Plant (BoP) by Combining an SOFC Model with the BoP-Modelling Tool APROS'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this