Dynamical phase and quantum heat at fractional frequencies

George Thomas, Jukka P. Pekola

Research output: Contribution to journalOther journal contributionScientificpeer-review


We demonstrate a genuine quantum feature of heat: the power emitted by a qubit (quantum two-level system) into a reservoir under continuous driving shows peaks as a function of frequency f. These resonant features appear due to the accumulation of the dynamical phase during the driving. The position of the nth maximum is given by f=fM/n, where fM is the mean frequency of the qubit in the cycle, and their positions are independent of the form of the drive and the number of heat baths attached, and even the presence or absence of spectral filtering. We show that the waveform of the drive determines the intensity of the peaks, differently for odd and even resonances. This quantum heat is expected to play a crucial role in the performance of driven thermal devices such as quantum heat engines and refrigerators. We also show that, by optimizing the cycle protocol, we recover the favorable classical limit in fast driven systems without the use of counterdiabatic drive protocols, and we demonstrate an entropy preserving nonunitary process. We propose that this non-trivial quantum heat can be detected by observing the steady-state power absorbed by a resistor acting as a bolometer attached to a driven superconducting qubit.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberL022036
JournalPhysical review research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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