Earth fault distance computation with fundamental frequency signals based on measurements in substation supply bay

Seppo Hänninen, Matti Lehtonen

    Research output: Book/ReportReport

    7 Citations (Scopus)


    This report describes three novel methods for earth fault location in unearthed, compensated and low-resistance grounded networks. The 20 kV medium voltage distribution networks are either unearthed or compensated in Finland. The last mentioned algorithm is therefore primarily intended for the export industry of the Finnish relay manufacturers. The developed algorithms are based on the use of fundamental frequency signals, and they need only one measurement unit per primary transformer at the substation. This is due to the fact that the fault current can be determined from the negative sequence component of the measured signal in the supply bay. The scope is restricted to radially operated systems. The earth fault distance location is based on the line impedance calculation in these algorithms. For unearthed and resistance grounded networks, measurements at three discrete times are needed for fault location purposes; pre-fault, fault and post-fault measurements. In the compensated network though, only two measurements, taken during the earth fault, are needed. The soundness of the algorithms was tested using simulated data. According to the results, the performance of the methods is good enough for practical use, and most likely the accuracy is comparable to the transient based methods. The algorithms were tested when the faulty feeder was both loaded and unloaded, with 10 - 30 W fault resistances. The error in distance computation was about 1- 2 km, depending on the loading and the fault resistance value.
    Original languageEnglish
    Place of PublicationEspoo
    PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
    Number of pages43
    ISBN (Electronic)951-38-6066-3
    ISBN (Print)951-38-6065-5
    Publication statusPublished - 2002
    MoE publication typeNot Eligible

    Publication series

    SeriesVTT Tiedotteita - Research Notes


    • power systems
    • power distribution networks
    • electrical faults
    • earth fault
    • positioning
    • fault resistance
    • distance
    • calculation
    • algorithms
    • signal processing


    Dive into the research topics of 'Earth fault distance computation with fundamental frequency signals based on measurements in substation supply bay'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this