China is one of the largest economies in the world and
also one of the world's biggest energy consumers. China
is a big country, with five major climates requiring
different building and building energy solutions. In
addition, China's urbanisation rate is over 40%. It is
estimated that the proportion of urban dwellers out of
the whole population will be about 70% by the end of
The EESCU project (Eco-efficient Solutions for China's
Urbanization) aimed at building the theoretical and
practical bases in order to support the implementation of
the Finnish eco-efficient solutions and concepts in
Chinese markets. This is the final report of the project
which summarizes the main results.
The project started with an inventory phase focusing on
basic building energy-related issues in China. These
covered urbanisation, climate regions, energy regulations
and current building energy consumption values based on
the available statistics and literature. The total energy
consumption in 2009 was 3 billion tons of standard coal.
The project had three main research sections, namely
"Zero Energy Buildings", "Regional Energy Solutions" and
"Energy Renovations of Existing Buildings". All these
sections consisted of theoretical sections, concept
developments and examples from both Finland and China. In
addition, building commissioning in China was discussed,
pilots and show cases from real buildings were reported
and business-related topics covered.
In "Zero Energy Buildings", the concept of net zero
energy buildings was first specified, providing a
definition of zero energy building, energy use and supply
mismatch, and explaining the differences between the cold
climate zero energy concept and the warm climate zero
energy concept. After the concept overview, examples of
zero energy buildings were presented from Europe and
China. Then, the low-exergy principle referring to the
quality of energy was discussed with examples.
In "Regional Energy Solutions", the system selection and
performance evaluation principle was introduced first.
This was followed by the design guidelines for district
energy systems and the principles of a district energy
system concept. In this study, the main emphasis was on
renewable energy production technologies and, therefore,
their basic production means were also discussed.
Renewable energy solutions often require some energy
storage solutions as well, so the basic means were also
covered. This section ended with case study examples.
Building renovation is rare in China. The real average
life span of China's residential buildings is only 25 to
30 years. For non-residential buildings, it is often even
shorter. The factors affecting the low renovation rate
and the renovation process have been discussed and then
energy-efficient and modular technologies for building
renovation have been reported.
|Place of Publication
|VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
|Number of pages
|Published - 2013
|MoE publication type
|D4 Published development or research report or study
- pilot project