Ecological analyses of social sustainability for international production with fixed and moveable technologies

Stephen Fox (Corresponding Author), Yusuf Mubarak, Abdurasak Adam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Mutualism is an ecological concept. Mutualistic relationships are mutually beneficial. However, as found in development geography studies, relationships between different peoples in different parts of the world are often not mutually beneficial. For example, there is lack of mutualism in international production that is dominated by companies that dictate where production is and is not carried out. This lack of mutualism leaves many other countries with little production capacity and persistent widespread unemployment. Thus, international production is not characterized by mutualistic social sustainability. International production has long been framed as being an ecological phenomenon that requires ecological analyses. However, previous social sustainability studies concerned with production have not provided ecological analyses of social sustainability. Rather, previous studies have focused on social theory and related operational practices. By contrast, in this paper, findings are reported from action research concerned with facilitating mutual prosperity growth between a Northern-European country, Finland, and an African fragile state, Somalia. The action research encompassed business development processes and moveable production technologies for mutual prosperity growth between the two countries. Ecological analyses, which were carried out during the action research, are provided of current international production and alternative production with moveable production technologies.
Original languageEnglish
Article number8476
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Development geography
  • Ecological fitness
  • Ecosystem engineering
  • Moveable production technologies
  • Socially sustainable international production
  • World-class production
  • World-fit production


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