Effect of age and body weight on neurohumoral variables in healthy Cavalier King Charles spaniels

A.S. Eriksson, A.K. Järvinen, K.K. Eklund, O.J. Vuolteenaho, Mervi Toivari, M.S. Nieminen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    15 Citations (Scopus)


    Objective — To evaluate the effect of age and body weight on several neurohumoral variables that are commonly altered in heart failure in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels.

    Animals — 17 healthy privately owned Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, 10 males and 7 females, ranging in age from 0.4 to 9.7 years, and ranging in body weight from 6.6 to 12.2 kg.

    Procedure — The clinical condition of the dogs was evaluated by physical examination, thoracic radiography, and echocardiography. Plasma nitrate and nitrite (P-NN), N-terminal atrial natriuretic and brain natriuretic peptides (NT-ANP and BNP, respectively), endothelin (ET-1), urine cyclic guanosine monophosphate (UcGMP), and urine nitrate and nitrite (U-NN) concentrations were analyzed.

    Results — Plasma concentrations of NT-ANP and P-NN increased significantly with age, but plasma NT-ANP and P-NN also correlated significantly, irrespective of age. A modest increase of left atrial size did not explain the increase of NT-ANP and P-NN with age. Concentration of ET-1 correlated positively with heart rate; heart rate did not change with age. Weight had a negative impact on NT-ANP, P-NN, and U-cGMP concentrations and left atrial relative size.

    Conclusions and Clinical Relevance — Age-matched controls are essential for evaluation of NT-ANP and PNN concentrations and left atrial size. Weight may alter reference values of plasma NT-ANP, P-NN, and urine cGMP concentrations. Natriuretic peptides can be used as further evidence that heart failure exists. The increased plasma concentrations of NT-ANP (but not BNP) and P-NN with aging reflect neurohumoral physiologic changes that must be distinguished from pathologic changes in patients with heart failure.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1818-1824
    Number of pages7
    JournalAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
    Issue number11
    Publication statusPublished - 2001
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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