Effect of alloy composition and temperature on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in hot alkaline solutions

Mikko Vepsäläinen, Pekka Pohjanne, M. Heikkilä, C.-G. Berg, J. Romu, T. Saukkonen, H. Hänninen, T. Ohligschläger, M. Pulliainen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steel UNS( 1 ) S30403, duplex stainless steels UNS S32101, UNS S32304, UNS S32205 and UNS S32507 as well as ferritic stainless steels UNS S43932 and ASTM(2) 444 was evaluated with U-bend specimens in alkaline solutions containing 500 g/l NaOH, 100 g/l NaOH + 55 g/l Na2S (hot white liquor [HWL]) and 15 g/l NaOH + 150 g/l Na2S (hot black liquor [HBL]) at temperatures of 140 and 190°C. Corrosion rates were determined from weight losses of the samples. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was characterized with optical microscopy and field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). In addition, the corrosion products were analyzed with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on the results the highest corrosion rates were obtained in 500 g/l NaOH solution, whereas in hot black and hot white liquors the corrosion rates were significantly lower. Increase in temperature resulted in higher corrosion rates, especially in pure NaOH solutions. Molybdenum alloying enhanced corrosion particularly at 190 °C and in the presence of Na2S, whereas chromium seems to improve the corrosion resistance. Severe SCC was observed in the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. The EDS and XRD analyses showed that different corrosion products form in sulfide containing solutions than in pure NaOH solutions. In pure NaOH solutions various oxides are formed, but in the presence of Na2S also sulfide containing corrosion products, such as iron-nickel sulfides, are formed.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationConference Proceedings
Subtitle of host publicationCorrosion 2013
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeNot Eligible
EventCorrosion 2013 - Orlando, FL, United States
Duration: 17 Mar 201321 Mar 2013

Conference

ConferenceCorrosion 2013
CountryUnited States
CityOrlando, FL
Period17/03/1321/03/13

Fingerprint

Stainless Steel
Corrosion
Corrosion rate
Chemical analysis
Ferritic steel
Sulfides
Stress corrosion cracking
Temperature
Energy dispersive spectroscopy
X ray diffraction
Molybdenum
Chromium
Austenitic stainless steel
Alloying
Field emission
Oxides
Optical microscopy
Corrosion resistance
Electron microscopes
Iron

Keywords

  • alkaline solution
  • corrosion rate
  • sodium hydroxide
  • sodium sulfide
  • stainless steel
  • stress corrosion cracking

Cite this

Vepsäläinen, M., Pohjanne, P., Heikkilä, M., Berg, C-G., Romu, J., Saukkonen, T., ... Pulliainen, M. (2013). Effect of alloy composition and temperature on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in hot alkaline solutions. In Conference Proceedings: Corrosion 2013 [15]
Vepsäläinen, Mikko ; Pohjanne, Pekka ; Heikkilä, M. ; Berg, C.-G. ; Romu, J. ; Saukkonen, T. ; Hänninen, H. ; Ohligschläger, T. ; Pulliainen, M. / Effect of alloy composition and temperature on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in hot alkaline solutions. Conference Proceedings: Corrosion 2013. 2013.
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title = "Effect of alloy composition and temperature on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in hot alkaline solutions",
abstract = "Corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steel UNS( 1 ) S30403, duplex stainless steels UNS S32101, UNS S32304, UNS S32205 and UNS S32507 as well as ferritic stainless steels UNS S43932 and ASTM(2) 444 was evaluated with U-bend specimens in alkaline solutions containing 500 g/l NaOH, 100 g/l NaOH + 55 g/l Na2S (hot white liquor [HWL]) and 15 g/l NaOH + 150 g/l Na2S (hot black liquor [HBL]) at temperatures of 140 and 190°C. Corrosion rates were determined from weight losses of the samples. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was characterized with optical microscopy and field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). In addition, the corrosion products were analyzed with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on the results the highest corrosion rates were obtained in 500 g/l NaOH solution, whereas in hot black and hot white liquors the corrosion rates were significantly lower. Increase in temperature resulted in higher corrosion rates, especially in pure NaOH solutions. Molybdenum alloying enhanced corrosion particularly at 190 °C and in the presence of Na2S, whereas chromium seems to improve the corrosion resistance. Severe SCC was observed in the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. The EDS and XRD analyses showed that different corrosion products form in sulfide containing solutions than in pure NaOH solutions. In pure NaOH solutions various oxides are formed, but in the presence of Na2S also sulfide containing corrosion products, such as iron-nickel sulfides, are formed.",
keywords = "alkaline solution, corrosion rate, sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide, stainless steel, stress corrosion cracking",
author = "Mikko Veps{\"a}l{\"a}inen and Pekka Pohjanne and M. Heikkil{\"a} and C.-G. Berg and J. Romu and T. Saukkonen and H. H{\"a}nninen and T. Ohligschl{\"a}ger and M. Pulliainen",
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Vepsäläinen, M, Pohjanne, P, Heikkilä, M, Berg, C-G, Romu, J, Saukkonen, T, Hänninen, H, Ohligschläger, T & Pulliainen, M 2013, Effect of alloy composition and temperature on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in hot alkaline solutions. in Conference Proceedings: Corrosion 2013., 15, Corrosion 2013, Orlando, FL, United States, 17/03/13.

Effect of alloy composition and temperature on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in hot alkaline solutions. / Vepsäläinen, Mikko; Pohjanne, Pekka; Heikkilä, M.; Berg, C.-G.; Romu, J.; Saukkonen, T.; Hänninen, H.; Ohligschläger, T.; Pulliainen, M.

Conference Proceedings: Corrosion 2013. 2013. 15.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

TY - GEN

T1 - Effect of alloy composition and temperature on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in hot alkaline solutions

AU - Vepsäläinen, Mikko

AU - Pohjanne, Pekka

AU - Heikkilä, M.

AU - Berg, C.-G.

AU - Romu, J.

AU - Saukkonen, T.

AU - Hänninen, H.

AU - Ohligschläger, T.

AU - Pulliainen, M.

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steel UNS( 1 ) S30403, duplex stainless steels UNS S32101, UNS S32304, UNS S32205 and UNS S32507 as well as ferritic stainless steels UNS S43932 and ASTM(2) 444 was evaluated with U-bend specimens in alkaline solutions containing 500 g/l NaOH, 100 g/l NaOH + 55 g/l Na2S (hot white liquor [HWL]) and 15 g/l NaOH + 150 g/l Na2S (hot black liquor [HBL]) at temperatures of 140 and 190°C. Corrosion rates were determined from weight losses of the samples. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was characterized with optical microscopy and field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). In addition, the corrosion products were analyzed with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on the results the highest corrosion rates were obtained in 500 g/l NaOH solution, whereas in hot black and hot white liquors the corrosion rates were significantly lower. Increase in temperature resulted in higher corrosion rates, especially in pure NaOH solutions. Molybdenum alloying enhanced corrosion particularly at 190 °C and in the presence of Na2S, whereas chromium seems to improve the corrosion resistance. Severe SCC was observed in the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. The EDS and XRD analyses showed that different corrosion products form in sulfide containing solutions than in pure NaOH solutions. In pure NaOH solutions various oxides are formed, but in the presence of Na2S also sulfide containing corrosion products, such as iron-nickel sulfides, are formed.

AB - Corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steel UNS( 1 ) S30403, duplex stainless steels UNS S32101, UNS S32304, UNS S32205 and UNS S32507 as well as ferritic stainless steels UNS S43932 and ASTM(2) 444 was evaluated with U-bend specimens in alkaline solutions containing 500 g/l NaOH, 100 g/l NaOH + 55 g/l Na2S (hot white liquor [HWL]) and 15 g/l NaOH + 150 g/l Na2S (hot black liquor [HBL]) at temperatures of 140 and 190°C. Corrosion rates were determined from weight losses of the samples. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was characterized with optical microscopy and field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). In addition, the corrosion products were analyzed with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on the results the highest corrosion rates were obtained in 500 g/l NaOH solution, whereas in hot black and hot white liquors the corrosion rates were significantly lower. Increase in temperature resulted in higher corrosion rates, especially in pure NaOH solutions. Molybdenum alloying enhanced corrosion particularly at 190 °C and in the presence of Na2S, whereas chromium seems to improve the corrosion resistance. Severe SCC was observed in the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. The EDS and XRD analyses showed that different corrosion products form in sulfide containing solutions than in pure NaOH solutions. In pure NaOH solutions various oxides are formed, but in the presence of Na2S also sulfide containing corrosion products, such as iron-nickel sulfides, are formed.

KW - alkaline solution

KW - corrosion rate

KW - sodium hydroxide

KW - sodium sulfide

KW - stainless steel

KW - stress corrosion cracking

M3 - Conference article in proceedings

SN - 978-1-6274-8145-8

BT - Conference Proceedings

ER -

Vepsäläinen M, Pohjanne P, Heikkilä M, Berg C-G, Romu J, Saukkonen T et al. Effect of alloy composition and temperature on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in hot alkaline solutions. In Conference Proceedings: Corrosion 2013. 2013. 15