Effect of alloy composition and temperature on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in hot alkaline solutions

Mikko Vepsäläinen, Pekka Pohjanne, M. Heikkilä, C.-G. Berg, J. Romu, T. Saukkonen, H. Hänninen, T. Ohligschläger, M. Pulliainen

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

    1 Citation (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steel UNS( 1 ) S30403, duplex stainless steels UNS S32101, UNS S32304, UNS S32205 and UNS S32507 as well as ferritic stainless steels UNS S43932 and ASTM(2) 444 was evaluated with U-bend specimens in alkaline solutions containing 500 g/l NaOH, 100 g/l NaOH + 55 g/l Na2S (hot white liquor [HWL]) and 15 g/l NaOH + 150 g/l Na2S (hot black liquor [HBL]) at temperatures of 140 and 190°C. Corrosion rates were determined from weight losses of the samples. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was characterized with optical microscopy and field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). In addition, the corrosion products were analyzed with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on the results the highest corrosion rates were obtained in 500 g/l NaOH solution, whereas in hot black and hot white liquors the corrosion rates were significantly lower. Increase in temperature resulted in higher corrosion rates, especially in pure NaOH solutions. Molybdenum alloying enhanced corrosion particularly at 190 °C and in the presence of Na2S, whereas chromium seems to improve the corrosion resistance. Severe SCC was observed in the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. The EDS and XRD analyses showed that different corrosion products form in sulfide containing solutions than in pure NaOH solutions. In pure NaOH solutions various oxides are formed, but in the presence of Na2S also sulfide containing corrosion products, such as iron-nickel sulfides, are formed.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationConference Proceedings
    Subtitle of host publicationCorrosion 2013
    Publication statusPublished - 2013
    MoE publication typeNot Eligible
    EventCorrosion 2013 - Orlando, FL, United States
    Duration: 17 Mar 201321 Mar 2013

    Conference

    ConferenceCorrosion 2013
    CountryUnited States
    CityOrlando, FL
    Period17/03/1321/03/13

    Fingerprint

    Stainless Steel
    Corrosion
    Corrosion rate
    Chemical analysis
    Ferritic steel
    Sulfides
    Stress corrosion cracking
    Temperature
    Energy dispersive spectroscopy
    X ray diffraction
    Molybdenum
    Chromium
    Austenitic stainless steel
    Alloying
    Field emission
    Oxides
    Optical microscopy
    Corrosion resistance
    Electron microscopes
    Iron

    Keywords

    • alkaline solution
    • corrosion rate
    • sodium hydroxide
    • sodium sulfide
    • stainless steel
    • stress corrosion cracking

    Cite this

    Vepsäläinen, M., Pohjanne, P., Heikkilä, M., Berg, C-G., Romu, J., Saukkonen, T., ... Pulliainen, M. (2013). Effect of alloy composition and temperature on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in hot alkaline solutions. In Conference Proceedings: Corrosion 2013 [15]
    Vepsäläinen, Mikko ; Pohjanne, Pekka ; Heikkilä, M. ; Berg, C.-G. ; Romu, J. ; Saukkonen, T. ; Hänninen, H. ; Ohligschläger, T. ; Pulliainen, M. / Effect of alloy composition and temperature on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in hot alkaline solutions. Conference Proceedings: Corrosion 2013. 2013.
    @inproceedings{0916744add224786911e12528f68ca2b,
    title = "Effect of alloy composition and temperature on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in hot alkaline solutions",
    abstract = "Corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steel UNS( 1 ) S30403, duplex stainless steels UNS S32101, UNS S32304, UNS S32205 and UNS S32507 as well as ferritic stainless steels UNS S43932 and ASTM(2) 444 was evaluated with U-bend specimens in alkaline solutions containing 500 g/l NaOH, 100 g/l NaOH + 55 g/l Na2S (hot white liquor [HWL]) and 15 g/l NaOH + 150 g/l Na2S (hot black liquor [HBL]) at temperatures of 140 and 190°C. Corrosion rates were determined from weight losses of the samples. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was characterized with optical microscopy and field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). In addition, the corrosion products were analyzed with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on the results the highest corrosion rates were obtained in 500 g/l NaOH solution, whereas in hot black and hot white liquors the corrosion rates were significantly lower. Increase in temperature resulted in higher corrosion rates, especially in pure NaOH solutions. Molybdenum alloying enhanced corrosion particularly at 190 °C and in the presence of Na2S, whereas chromium seems to improve the corrosion resistance. Severe SCC was observed in the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. The EDS and XRD analyses showed that different corrosion products form in sulfide containing solutions than in pure NaOH solutions. In pure NaOH solutions various oxides are formed, but in the presence of Na2S also sulfide containing corrosion products, such as iron-nickel sulfides, are formed.",
    keywords = "alkaline solution, corrosion rate, sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide, stainless steel, stress corrosion cracking",
    author = "Mikko Veps{\"a}l{\"a}inen and Pekka Pohjanne and M. Heikkil{\"a} and C.-G. Berg and J. Romu and T. Saukkonen and H. H{\"a}nninen and T. Ohligschl{\"a}ger and M. Pulliainen",
    year = "2013",
    language = "English",
    isbn = "978-1-6274-8145-8",
    booktitle = "Conference Proceedings",

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    Vepsäläinen, M, Pohjanne, P, Heikkilä, M, Berg, C-G, Romu, J, Saukkonen, T, Hänninen, H, Ohligschläger, T & Pulliainen, M 2013, Effect of alloy composition and temperature on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in hot alkaline solutions. in Conference Proceedings: Corrosion 2013., 15, Corrosion 2013, Orlando, FL, United States, 17/03/13.

    Effect of alloy composition and temperature on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in hot alkaline solutions. / Vepsäläinen, Mikko; Pohjanne, Pekka; Heikkilä, M.; Berg, C.-G.; Romu, J.; Saukkonen, T.; Hänninen, H.; Ohligschläger, T.; Pulliainen, M.

    Conference Proceedings: Corrosion 2013. 2013. 15.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

    TY - GEN

    T1 - Effect of alloy composition and temperature on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in hot alkaline solutions

    AU - Vepsäläinen, Mikko

    AU - Pohjanne, Pekka

    AU - Heikkilä, M.

    AU - Berg, C.-G.

    AU - Romu, J.

    AU - Saukkonen, T.

    AU - Hänninen, H.

    AU - Ohligschläger, T.

    AU - Pulliainen, M.

    PY - 2013

    Y1 - 2013

    N2 - Corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steel UNS( 1 ) S30403, duplex stainless steels UNS S32101, UNS S32304, UNS S32205 and UNS S32507 as well as ferritic stainless steels UNS S43932 and ASTM(2) 444 was evaluated with U-bend specimens in alkaline solutions containing 500 g/l NaOH, 100 g/l NaOH + 55 g/l Na2S (hot white liquor [HWL]) and 15 g/l NaOH + 150 g/l Na2S (hot black liquor [HBL]) at temperatures of 140 and 190°C. Corrosion rates were determined from weight losses of the samples. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was characterized with optical microscopy and field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). In addition, the corrosion products were analyzed with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on the results the highest corrosion rates were obtained in 500 g/l NaOH solution, whereas in hot black and hot white liquors the corrosion rates were significantly lower. Increase in temperature resulted in higher corrosion rates, especially in pure NaOH solutions. Molybdenum alloying enhanced corrosion particularly at 190 °C and in the presence of Na2S, whereas chromium seems to improve the corrosion resistance. Severe SCC was observed in the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. The EDS and XRD analyses showed that different corrosion products form in sulfide containing solutions than in pure NaOH solutions. In pure NaOH solutions various oxides are formed, but in the presence of Na2S also sulfide containing corrosion products, such as iron-nickel sulfides, are formed.

    AB - Corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steel UNS( 1 ) S30403, duplex stainless steels UNS S32101, UNS S32304, UNS S32205 and UNS S32507 as well as ferritic stainless steels UNS S43932 and ASTM(2) 444 was evaluated with U-bend specimens in alkaline solutions containing 500 g/l NaOH, 100 g/l NaOH + 55 g/l Na2S (hot white liquor [HWL]) and 15 g/l NaOH + 150 g/l Na2S (hot black liquor [HBL]) at temperatures of 140 and 190°C. Corrosion rates were determined from weight losses of the samples. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was characterized with optical microscopy and field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). In addition, the corrosion products were analyzed with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on the results the highest corrosion rates were obtained in 500 g/l NaOH solution, whereas in hot black and hot white liquors the corrosion rates were significantly lower. Increase in temperature resulted in higher corrosion rates, especially in pure NaOH solutions. Molybdenum alloying enhanced corrosion particularly at 190 °C and in the presence of Na2S, whereas chromium seems to improve the corrosion resistance. Severe SCC was observed in the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. The EDS and XRD analyses showed that different corrosion products form in sulfide containing solutions than in pure NaOH solutions. In pure NaOH solutions various oxides are formed, but in the presence of Na2S also sulfide containing corrosion products, such as iron-nickel sulfides, are formed.

    KW - alkaline solution

    KW - corrosion rate

    KW - sodium hydroxide

    KW - sodium sulfide

    KW - stainless steel

    KW - stress corrosion cracking

    M3 - Conference article in proceedings

    SN - 978-1-6274-8145-8

    BT - Conference Proceedings

    ER -

    Vepsäläinen M, Pohjanne P, Heikkilä M, Berg C-G, Romu J, Saukkonen T et al. Effect of alloy composition and temperature on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in hot alkaline solutions. In Conference Proceedings: Corrosion 2013. 2013. 15