Effect of biofuel-derived contaminants on coated industrial gas turbines blade materials

A. Encinas-Oropesa (Corresponding Author), N.J. Simms, J.R. Nicholls, J.E. Oakey, L. Heikinheimo, Satu Tuurna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Combined cycle power systems offer increased efficiency of electricity generation and lower environmental emissions of CO2, SOx and NO2, as well as being adaptable to most fossil/biofuels. Industrial gas turbines are at the heart of such power stations and are being developed to perform at higher firing temperatures and pressures to achieve even greater efficiencies, with lower emissions. Fuel gases derived from renewable fuels, such as biogases from digestors or syngases from solid fuel gasification, may contain contaminants that are extremely corrosive to the gas turbine components (e.g. blades and vanes) located in the hot combusted gas path. Such damage can result in a gradual loss of turbine efficiency and reliability. Therefore, it is of paramount importance that the materials usedfor gas turbine components that operate in these environments provide acceptable and predictable in-service life times. Single crystal superalloys (e.g. CMSX-4) were developed to have improved mechanical properties (creep and fatigue) at increasing component operating temperatures, especially in relatively clean aero-engine operating environments. This paper describes work carried out to investigate the development of hot corrosion processes on CMSX-4 (uncoated and Pt-Al coated) in a range of potential environments for blade materials in industrial gas turbines fired on biomass derived fuel gases. A series of laboratory tests has been carried out using the 'deposit recoat' technique, with exposure conditions covering: deposits of 80/20 and 50/50 (Na/K)2SO4, with additions oflead, a gas composition of 100 vpm SOx, 100 vpm HCl in simulated combustion gases, deposition flux of 15mg/cm2/h, temperature of 700 8C, for periods up to 1000 h. During their exposure the materials were monitored using traditional mass changemethods. However, quantitative damage data in terms of metal loss was obtained using dimensional metrology, pre-exposure contact measurements combined with post-exposure measurements of damage observed by optical microscopy on polished cross-sections. These measurement methods allowed the distribution of damage to be determined and the material sensitivity to such hot corrosion processes to be quantified.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)206-216
JournalMaterials and Corrosion
Volume65
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Biofuels
biofuel
turbine
Turbomachine blades
Gas turbines
Impurities
Turbine components
pollutant
Gases
Gas fuels
gas
Deposits
Corrosion
Caustics
damage
Superalloys
Gasification
Service life
Temperature
Optical microscopy

Keywords

  • biomass
  • CMSX-4
  • industrial gas turbines
  • Type II hot corrosion

Cite this

Encinas-Oropesa, A., Simms, N. J., Nicholls, J. R., Oakey, J. E., Heikinheimo, L., & Tuurna, S. (2014). Effect of biofuel-derived contaminants on coated industrial gas turbines blade materials. Materials and Corrosion, 65(2), 206-216. https://doi.org/10.1002/maco.201307070
Encinas-Oropesa, A. ; Simms, N.J. ; Nicholls, J.R. ; Oakey, J.E. ; Heikinheimo, L. ; Tuurna, Satu. / Effect of biofuel-derived contaminants on coated industrial gas turbines blade materials. In: Materials and Corrosion. 2014 ; Vol. 65, No. 2. pp. 206-216.
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abstract = "Combined cycle power systems offer increased efficiency of electricity generation and lower environmental emissions of CO2, SOx and NO2, as well as being adaptable to most fossil/biofuels. Industrial gas turbines are at the heart of such power stations and are being developed to perform at higher firing temperatures and pressures to achieve even greater efficiencies, with lower emissions. Fuel gases derived from renewable fuels, such as biogases from digestors or syngases from solid fuel gasification, may contain contaminants that are extremely corrosive to the gas turbine components (e.g. blades and vanes) located in the hot combusted gas path. Such damage can result in a gradual loss of turbine efficiency and reliability. Therefore, it is of paramount importance that the materials usedfor gas turbine components that operate in these environments provide acceptable and predictable in-service life times. Single crystal superalloys (e.g. CMSX-4) were developed to have improved mechanical properties (creep and fatigue) at increasing component operating temperatures, especially in relatively clean aero-engine operating environments. This paper describes work carried out to investigate the development of hot corrosion processes on CMSX-4 (uncoated and Pt-Al coated) in a range of potential environments for blade materials in industrial gas turbines fired on biomass derived fuel gases. A series of laboratory tests has been carried out using the 'deposit recoat' technique, with exposure conditions covering: deposits of 80/20 and 50/50 (Na/K)2SO4, with additions oflead, a gas composition of 100 vpm SOx, 100 vpm HCl in simulated combustion gases, deposition flux of 15mg/cm2/h, temperature of 700 8C, for periods up to 1000 h. During their exposure the materials were monitored using traditional mass changemethods. However, quantitative damage data in terms of metal loss was obtained using dimensional metrology, pre-exposure contact measurements combined with post-exposure measurements of damage observed by optical microscopy on polished cross-sections. These measurement methods allowed the distribution of damage to be determined and the material sensitivity to such hot corrosion processes to be quantified.",
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Encinas-Oropesa, A, Simms, NJ, Nicholls, JR, Oakey, JE, Heikinheimo, L & Tuurna, S 2014, 'Effect of biofuel-derived contaminants on coated industrial gas turbines blade materials', Materials and Corrosion, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 206-216. https://doi.org/10.1002/maco.201307070

Effect of biofuel-derived contaminants on coated industrial gas turbines blade materials. / Encinas-Oropesa, A. (Corresponding Author); Simms, N.J.; Nicholls, J.R.; Oakey, J.E.; Heikinheimo, L.; Tuurna, Satu.

In: Materials and Corrosion, Vol. 65, No. 2, 2014, p. 206-216.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of biofuel-derived contaminants on coated industrial gas turbines blade materials

AU - Encinas-Oropesa, A.

AU - Simms, N.J.

AU - Nicholls, J.R.

AU - Oakey, J.E.

AU - Heikinheimo, L.

AU - Tuurna, Satu

N1 - Project code: V8SU01168

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Combined cycle power systems offer increased efficiency of electricity generation and lower environmental emissions of CO2, SOx and NO2, as well as being adaptable to most fossil/biofuels. Industrial gas turbines are at the heart of such power stations and are being developed to perform at higher firing temperatures and pressures to achieve even greater efficiencies, with lower emissions. Fuel gases derived from renewable fuels, such as biogases from digestors or syngases from solid fuel gasification, may contain contaminants that are extremely corrosive to the gas turbine components (e.g. blades and vanes) located in the hot combusted gas path. Such damage can result in a gradual loss of turbine efficiency and reliability. Therefore, it is of paramount importance that the materials usedfor gas turbine components that operate in these environments provide acceptable and predictable in-service life times. Single crystal superalloys (e.g. CMSX-4) were developed to have improved mechanical properties (creep and fatigue) at increasing component operating temperatures, especially in relatively clean aero-engine operating environments. This paper describes work carried out to investigate the development of hot corrosion processes on CMSX-4 (uncoated and Pt-Al coated) in a range of potential environments for blade materials in industrial gas turbines fired on biomass derived fuel gases. A series of laboratory tests has been carried out using the 'deposit recoat' technique, with exposure conditions covering: deposits of 80/20 and 50/50 (Na/K)2SO4, with additions oflead, a gas composition of 100 vpm SOx, 100 vpm HCl in simulated combustion gases, deposition flux of 15mg/cm2/h, temperature of 700 8C, for periods up to 1000 h. During their exposure the materials were monitored using traditional mass changemethods. However, quantitative damage data in terms of metal loss was obtained using dimensional metrology, pre-exposure contact measurements combined with post-exposure measurements of damage observed by optical microscopy on polished cross-sections. These measurement methods allowed the distribution of damage to be determined and the material sensitivity to such hot corrosion processes to be quantified.

AB - Combined cycle power systems offer increased efficiency of electricity generation and lower environmental emissions of CO2, SOx and NO2, as well as being adaptable to most fossil/biofuels. Industrial gas turbines are at the heart of such power stations and are being developed to perform at higher firing temperatures and pressures to achieve even greater efficiencies, with lower emissions. Fuel gases derived from renewable fuels, such as biogases from digestors or syngases from solid fuel gasification, may contain contaminants that are extremely corrosive to the gas turbine components (e.g. blades and vanes) located in the hot combusted gas path. Such damage can result in a gradual loss of turbine efficiency and reliability. Therefore, it is of paramount importance that the materials usedfor gas turbine components that operate in these environments provide acceptable and predictable in-service life times. Single crystal superalloys (e.g. CMSX-4) were developed to have improved mechanical properties (creep and fatigue) at increasing component operating temperatures, especially in relatively clean aero-engine operating environments. This paper describes work carried out to investigate the development of hot corrosion processes on CMSX-4 (uncoated and Pt-Al coated) in a range of potential environments for blade materials in industrial gas turbines fired on biomass derived fuel gases. A series of laboratory tests has been carried out using the 'deposit recoat' technique, with exposure conditions covering: deposits of 80/20 and 50/50 (Na/K)2SO4, with additions oflead, a gas composition of 100 vpm SOx, 100 vpm HCl in simulated combustion gases, deposition flux of 15mg/cm2/h, temperature of 700 8C, for periods up to 1000 h. During their exposure the materials were monitored using traditional mass changemethods. However, quantitative damage data in terms of metal loss was obtained using dimensional metrology, pre-exposure contact measurements combined with post-exposure measurements of damage observed by optical microscopy on polished cross-sections. These measurement methods allowed the distribution of damage to be determined and the material sensitivity to such hot corrosion processes to be quantified.

KW - biomass

KW - CMSX-4

KW - industrial gas turbines

KW - Type II hot corrosion

U2 - 10.1002/maco.201307070

DO - 10.1002/maco.201307070

M3 - Article

VL - 65

SP - 206

EP - 216

JO - Materials and Corrosion

JF - Materials and Corrosion

SN - 0947-5117

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ER -