Effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation in pilot-scale CFBC of biomass

Terttaliisa Lind, Esko I. Kauppinen (Corresponding Author), Jouni Hokkinen, Jorma K. Jokiniemi, Markku Orjala, Minna Aurela, Risto Hillamo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Behavior of chlorine and sulfur is critical on the formation of fine particles (here particles smaller than one micrometer, PM1.0) during combustion. In this investigation, we studied experimentally fine particle formation in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed reactor during combustion of bark and pulp and paper mill sludge. The effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation was investigated by adding HCl and SO2 into the reactor. Fine fly ash particles were formed from alkali species that were released from the fuel to the gas phase. In low-HCl conditions, alkali species reacted readily with silicates, and therefore, a large fraction of alkalis was retained in the bottom ash. Consequently, fine particle concentrations in the flue gas were relatively low. In this case, fine particles were both alkali metal chlorides and sulfates. HCl addition increased the concentration of fine particles considerably due to gas phase reactions between alkali metal species and HCl. Alkali metal chlorides that were formed condensed producing large mass concentrations of fine alkali metal chloride particles. Due to extensive alkali metal chloride formation, significantly less alkalis reacted with silicates and ended up in the bottom ash than when HCl concentration was low. Further SO2 addition transformed some of the chlorides into sulfates in the fine particle mode. At the same time, the total fine particle concentration decreased, possibly due to formation of coarse mixed K−Ca−sulfate ash particles.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-68
Number of pages8
JournalEnergy & Fuels
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Alkali Metals
Ashes
Chlorine
Alkali metals
Sulfur
Alkalies
Chlorides
Coal Ash
Biomass
Silicates
Sulfates
Gases
Paper and pulp mills
Fly ash
Flue gases
Fluidized beds

Keywords

  • combustion
  • combustion products
  • fluidized bed combustion
  • chlorine
  • sulphur dioxide

Cite this

Lind, T., Kauppinen, E. I., Hokkinen, J., Jokiniemi, J. K., Orjala, M., Aurela, M., & Hillamo, R. (2006). Effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation in pilot-scale CFBC of biomass. Energy & Fuels, 20(1), 61-68. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef050122i
Lind, Terttaliisa ; Kauppinen, Esko I. ; Hokkinen, Jouni ; Jokiniemi, Jorma K. ; Orjala, Markku ; Aurela, Minna ; Hillamo, Risto. / Effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation in pilot-scale CFBC of biomass. In: Energy & Fuels. 2006 ; Vol. 20, No. 1. pp. 61-68.
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abstract = "Behavior of chlorine and sulfur is critical on the formation of fine particles (here particles smaller than one micrometer, PM1.0) during combustion. In this investigation, we studied experimentally fine particle formation in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed reactor during combustion of bark and pulp and paper mill sludge. The effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation was investigated by adding HCl and SO2 into the reactor. Fine fly ash particles were formed from alkali species that were released from the fuel to the gas phase. In low-HCl conditions, alkali species reacted readily with silicates, and therefore, a large fraction of alkalis was retained in the bottom ash. Consequently, fine particle concentrations in the flue gas were relatively low. In this case, fine particles were both alkali metal chlorides and sulfates. HCl addition increased the concentration of fine particles considerably due to gas phase reactions between alkali metal species and HCl. Alkali metal chlorides that were formed condensed producing large mass concentrations of fine alkali metal chloride particles. Due to extensive alkali metal chloride formation, significantly less alkalis reacted with silicates and ended up in the bottom ash than when HCl concentration was low. Further SO2 addition transformed some of the chlorides into sulfates in the fine particle mode. At the same time, the total fine particle concentration decreased, possibly due to formation of coarse mixed K−Ca−sulfate ash particles.",
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author = "Terttaliisa Lind and Kauppinen, {Esko I.} and Jouni Hokkinen and Jokiniemi, {Jorma K.} and Markku Orjala and Minna Aurela and Risto Hillamo",
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Lind, T, Kauppinen, EI, Hokkinen, J, Jokiniemi, JK, Orjala, M, Aurela, M & Hillamo, R 2006, 'Effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation in pilot-scale CFBC of biomass', Energy & Fuels, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 61-68. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef050122i

Effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation in pilot-scale CFBC of biomass. / Lind, Terttaliisa; Kauppinen, Esko I. (Corresponding Author); Hokkinen, Jouni; Jokiniemi, Jorma K.; Orjala, Markku; Aurela, Minna; Hillamo, Risto.

In: Energy & Fuels, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, p. 61-68.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation in pilot-scale CFBC of biomass

AU - Lind, Terttaliisa

AU - Kauppinen, Esko I.

AU - Hokkinen, Jouni

AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma K.

AU - Orjala, Markku

AU - Aurela, Minna

AU - Hillamo, Risto

PY - 2006

Y1 - 2006

N2 - Behavior of chlorine and sulfur is critical on the formation of fine particles (here particles smaller than one micrometer, PM1.0) during combustion. In this investigation, we studied experimentally fine particle formation in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed reactor during combustion of bark and pulp and paper mill sludge. The effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation was investigated by adding HCl and SO2 into the reactor. Fine fly ash particles were formed from alkali species that were released from the fuel to the gas phase. In low-HCl conditions, alkali species reacted readily with silicates, and therefore, a large fraction of alkalis was retained in the bottom ash. Consequently, fine particle concentrations in the flue gas were relatively low. In this case, fine particles were both alkali metal chlorides and sulfates. HCl addition increased the concentration of fine particles considerably due to gas phase reactions between alkali metal species and HCl. Alkali metal chlorides that were formed condensed producing large mass concentrations of fine alkali metal chloride particles. Due to extensive alkali metal chloride formation, significantly less alkalis reacted with silicates and ended up in the bottom ash than when HCl concentration was low. Further SO2 addition transformed some of the chlorides into sulfates in the fine particle mode. At the same time, the total fine particle concentration decreased, possibly due to formation of coarse mixed K−Ca−sulfate ash particles.

AB - Behavior of chlorine and sulfur is critical on the formation of fine particles (here particles smaller than one micrometer, PM1.0) during combustion. In this investigation, we studied experimentally fine particle formation in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed reactor during combustion of bark and pulp and paper mill sludge. The effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation was investigated by adding HCl and SO2 into the reactor. Fine fly ash particles were formed from alkali species that were released from the fuel to the gas phase. In low-HCl conditions, alkali species reacted readily with silicates, and therefore, a large fraction of alkalis was retained in the bottom ash. Consequently, fine particle concentrations in the flue gas were relatively low. In this case, fine particles were both alkali metal chlorides and sulfates. HCl addition increased the concentration of fine particles considerably due to gas phase reactions between alkali metal species and HCl. Alkali metal chlorides that were formed condensed producing large mass concentrations of fine alkali metal chloride particles. Due to extensive alkali metal chloride formation, significantly less alkalis reacted with silicates and ended up in the bottom ash than when HCl concentration was low. Further SO2 addition transformed some of the chlorides into sulfates in the fine particle mode. At the same time, the total fine particle concentration decreased, possibly due to formation of coarse mixed K−Ca−sulfate ash particles.

KW - combustion

KW - combustion products

KW - fluidized bed combustion

KW - chlorine

KW - sulphur dioxide

U2 - 10.1021/ef050122i

DO - 10.1021/ef050122i

M3 - Article

VL - 20

SP - 61

EP - 68

JO - Energy & Fuels

JF - Energy & Fuels

SN - 0887-0624

IS - 1

ER -