Effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation in pilot-scale CFBC of biomass

Terttaliisa Lind, Esko I. Kauppinen (Corresponding Author), Jouni Hokkinen, Jorma K. Jokiniemi, Markku Orjala, Minna Aurela, Risto Hillamo

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    47 Citations (Scopus)


    Behavior of chlorine and sulfur is critical on the formation of fine particles (here particles smaller than one micrometer, PM1.0) during combustion. In this investigation, we studied experimentally fine particle formation in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed reactor during combustion of bark and pulp and paper mill sludge. The effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation was investigated by adding HCl and SO2 into the reactor. Fine fly ash particles were formed from alkali species that were released from the fuel to the gas phase. In low-HCl conditions, alkali species reacted readily with silicates, and therefore, a large fraction of alkalis was retained in the bottom ash. Consequently, fine particle concentrations in the flue gas were relatively low. In this case, fine particles were both alkali metal chlorides and sulfates. HCl addition increased the concentration of fine particles considerably due to gas phase reactions between alkali metal species and HCl. Alkali metal chlorides that were formed condensed producing large mass concentrations of fine alkali metal chloride particles. Due to extensive alkali metal chloride formation, significantly less alkalis reacted with silicates and ended up in the bottom ash than when HCl concentration was low. Further SO2 addition transformed some of the chlorides into sulfates in the fine particle mode. At the same time, the total fine particle concentration decreased, possibly due to formation of coarse mixed K−Ca−sulfate ash particles.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)61-68
    Number of pages8
    JournalEnergy & Fuels
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2006
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • combustion
    • combustion products
    • fluidized bed combustion
    • chlorine
    • sulphur dioxide


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