Effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation in pilot-scale CFBC of biomass

Terttaliisa Lind, Esko I. Kauppinen (Corresponding Author), Jouni Hokkinen, Jorma K. Jokiniemi, Markku Orjala, Minna Aurela, Risto Hillamo

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    35 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Behavior of chlorine and sulfur is critical on the formation of fine particles (here particles smaller than one micrometer, PM1.0) during combustion. In this investigation, we studied experimentally fine particle formation in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed reactor during combustion of bark and pulp and paper mill sludge. The effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation was investigated by adding HCl and SO2 into the reactor. Fine fly ash particles were formed from alkali species that were released from the fuel to the gas phase. In low-HCl conditions, alkali species reacted readily with silicates, and therefore, a large fraction of alkalis was retained in the bottom ash. Consequently, fine particle concentrations in the flue gas were relatively low. In this case, fine particles were both alkali metal chlorides and sulfates. HCl addition increased the concentration of fine particles considerably due to gas phase reactions between alkali metal species and HCl. Alkali metal chlorides that were formed condensed producing large mass concentrations of fine alkali metal chloride particles. Due to extensive alkali metal chloride formation, significantly less alkalis reacted with silicates and ended up in the bottom ash than when HCl concentration was low. Further SO2 addition transformed some of the chlorides into sulfates in the fine particle mode. At the same time, the total fine particle concentration decreased, possibly due to formation of coarse mixed K−Ca−sulfate ash particles.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)61-68
    Number of pages8
    JournalEnergy & Fuels
    Volume20
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2006
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Alkali Metals
    Ashes
    Chlorine
    Alkali metals
    Sulfur
    Alkalies
    Chlorides
    Coal Ash
    Biomass
    Silicates
    Sulfates
    Gases
    Paper and pulp mills
    Fly ash
    Flue gases
    Fluidized beds

    Keywords

    • combustion
    • combustion products
    • fluidized bed combustion
    • chlorine
    • sulphur dioxide

    Cite this

    Lind, T., Kauppinen, E. I., Hokkinen, J., Jokiniemi, J. K., Orjala, M., Aurela, M., & Hillamo, R. (2006). Effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation in pilot-scale CFBC of biomass. Energy & Fuels, 20(1), 61-68. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef050122i
    Lind, Terttaliisa ; Kauppinen, Esko I. ; Hokkinen, Jouni ; Jokiniemi, Jorma K. ; Orjala, Markku ; Aurela, Minna ; Hillamo, Risto. / Effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation in pilot-scale CFBC of biomass. In: Energy & Fuels. 2006 ; Vol. 20, No. 1. pp. 61-68.
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    abstract = "Behavior of chlorine and sulfur is critical on the formation of fine particles (here particles smaller than one micrometer, PM1.0) during combustion. In this investigation, we studied experimentally fine particle formation in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed reactor during combustion of bark and pulp and paper mill sludge. The effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation was investigated by adding HCl and SO2 into the reactor. Fine fly ash particles were formed from alkali species that were released from the fuel to the gas phase. In low-HCl conditions, alkali species reacted readily with silicates, and therefore, a large fraction of alkalis was retained in the bottom ash. Consequently, fine particle concentrations in the flue gas were relatively low. In this case, fine particles were both alkali metal chlorides and sulfates. HCl addition increased the concentration of fine particles considerably due to gas phase reactions between alkali metal species and HCl. Alkali metal chlorides that were formed condensed producing large mass concentrations of fine alkali metal chloride particles. Due to extensive alkali metal chloride formation, significantly less alkalis reacted with silicates and ended up in the bottom ash than when HCl concentration was low. Further SO2 addition transformed some of the chlorides into sulfates in the fine particle mode. At the same time, the total fine particle concentration decreased, possibly due to formation of coarse mixed K−Ca−sulfate ash particles.",
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    author = "Terttaliisa Lind and Kauppinen, {Esko I.} and Jouni Hokkinen and Jokiniemi, {Jorma K.} and Markku Orjala and Minna Aurela and Risto Hillamo",
    year = "2006",
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    Lind, T, Kauppinen, EI, Hokkinen, J, Jokiniemi, JK, Orjala, M, Aurela, M & Hillamo, R 2006, 'Effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation in pilot-scale CFBC of biomass', Energy & Fuels, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 61-68. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef050122i

    Effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation in pilot-scale CFBC of biomass. / Lind, Terttaliisa; Kauppinen, Esko I. (Corresponding Author); Hokkinen, Jouni; Jokiniemi, Jorma K.; Orjala, Markku; Aurela, Minna; Hillamo, Risto.

    In: Energy & Fuels, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2006, p. 61-68.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation in pilot-scale CFBC of biomass

    AU - Lind, Terttaliisa

    AU - Kauppinen, Esko I.

    AU - Hokkinen, Jouni

    AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma K.

    AU - Orjala, Markku

    AU - Aurela, Minna

    AU - Hillamo, Risto

    PY - 2006

    Y1 - 2006

    N2 - Behavior of chlorine and sulfur is critical on the formation of fine particles (here particles smaller than one micrometer, PM1.0) during combustion. In this investigation, we studied experimentally fine particle formation in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed reactor during combustion of bark and pulp and paper mill sludge. The effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation was investigated by adding HCl and SO2 into the reactor. Fine fly ash particles were formed from alkali species that were released from the fuel to the gas phase. In low-HCl conditions, alkali species reacted readily with silicates, and therefore, a large fraction of alkalis was retained in the bottom ash. Consequently, fine particle concentrations in the flue gas were relatively low. In this case, fine particles were both alkali metal chlorides and sulfates. HCl addition increased the concentration of fine particles considerably due to gas phase reactions between alkali metal species and HCl. Alkali metal chlorides that were formed condensed producing large mass concentrations of fine alkali metal chloride particles. Due to extensive alkali metal chloride formation, significantly less alkalis reacted with silicates and ended up in the bottom ash than when HCl concentration was low. Further SO2 addition transformed some of the chlorides into sulfates in the fine particle mode. At the same time, the total fine particle concentration decreased, possibly due to formation of coarse mixed K−Ca−sulfate ash particles.

    AB - Behavior of chlorine and sulfur is critical on the formation of fine particles (here particles smaller than one micrometer, PM1.0) during combustion. In this investigation, we studied experimentally fine particle formation in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed reactor during combustion of bark and pulp and paper mill sludge. The effect of chlorine and sulfur on fine particle formation was investigated by adding HCl and SO2 into the reactor. Fine fly ash particles were formed from alkali species that were released from the fuel to the gas phase. In low-HCl conditions, alkali species reacted readily with silicates, and therefore, a large fraction of alkalis was retained in the bottom ash. Consequently, fine particle concentrations in the flue gas were relatively low. In this case, fine particles were both alkali metal chlorides and sulfates. HCl addition increased the concentration of fine particles considerably due to gas phase reactions between alkali metal species and HCl. Alkali metal chlorides that were formed condensed producing large mass concentrations of fine alkali metal chloride particles. Due to extensive alkali metal chloride formation, significantly less alkalis reacted with silicates and ended up in the bottom ash than when HCl concentration was low. Further SO2 addition transformed some of the chlorides into sulfates in the fine particle mode. At the same time, the total fine particle concentration decreased, possibly due to formation of coarse mixed K−Ca−sulfate ash particles.

    KW - combustion

    KW - combustion products

    KW - fluidized bed combustion

    KW - chlorine

    KW - sulphur dioxide

    U2 - 10.1021/ef050122i

    DO - 10.1021/ef050122i

    M3 - Article

    VL - 20

    SP - 61

    EP - 68

    JO - Energy & Fuels

    JF - Energy & Fuels

    SN - 0887-0624

    IS - 1

    ER -