Effect of Climate Change on Transformers Loading Conditions in the Future Smart Grid Environment

Murtaza Hashmi, M Lehtonen, Seppo Hänninen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


    The steady-state calculations are performed using IEC guidelines to determine the hot spot temperatures of distribution and power transformers in the worst projected Finnish environment due to long summer periods. Moreover, the effect of increase in winding resistance due to increase in ambient temperatures has been taken into account. The primary objective of the research is to investigate the possible extreme circumstances due to climate change. It is concluded that the power and distribution transformers should be progressively de-rated under such circumstances for their safe operations, which will not only prove cost-effective for utilities but also improve the reliability of the power supply to their valued customers in the challenging future smart grid environment.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)24-29
    Number of pages6
    JournalOpen Journal of Applied Sciences
    Issue number2B
    Publication statusPublished - 2013
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Distribution transformer
    • power transformer
    • winding resistance
    • climate change
    • electricity distribution company
    • reliability
    • smart grid


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