Effect of combustion condition on cytotoxic and inflammatory activity of residential wood combustion particles

Pasi I. Jalava (Corresponding Author), Raimo O. Salonen, Kati Nuutinen, Arto S. Pennanen, Mikko S. Happo, Jarkko Tissari, Anna Frey, Risto Hillamo, Jorma Jokiniemi, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen

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Abstract

Residential heating is an important local source of fine particles and may cause significant exposure and health effects in populations. We investigated the cytotoxic and inflammatory activity of particulate emissions from normal (NC) and smouldering (SC) combustion in one masonry heater. The PM1–0.2 and PM0.2 samples were collected from the dilution tunnel with a high-volume cascade impactor (HVCI). Mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to the PM-samples for 24 h. Inflammatory mediators, (IL-6, TNFα and MIP-2), and cytotoxicity (MTT-test), were measured. Furthermore, apoptosis and cell cycle of macrophages were analyzed. The HVCI particulate samples were characterized for ions, elements and PAH compounds. Assays of elemental and organic carbon were conducted from parallel low volume samples. All the samples displayed mostly dose-dependent inflammatory and cytotoxic activity. SC samples were more potent than NC samples at inducing cytotoxicity and MIP-2 production, while the order of potency was reversed in TNFα production. SC-PM1–0.2 sample was a significantly more potent inducer of apoptosis than the respective NC sample. After adjustment for the relative toxicity with emission factor (mg MJ−1), the SC-PM emissions had clearly higher inflammatory and cytotoxic potential than the NC-PM emissions. Thus, operational practice in batch burning of wood and the resultant combustion condition clearly affect the toxic potential of particulate emissions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1691-1698
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Volume44
Issue number13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Fine particles
  • Inflammation
  • Residential wood combustion
  • Sources

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    Jalava, P. I., Salonen, R. O., Nuutinen, K., Pennanen, A. S., Happo, M. S., Tissari, J., Frey, A., Hillamo, R., Jokiniemi, J., & Hirvonen, M-R. (2010). Effect of combustion condition on cytotoxic and inflammatory activity of residential wood combustion particles. Atmospheric Environment, 44(13), 1691-1698. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.12.034