Effect of composition and surface characteristics on fuel retention in beryllium-containing co-deposited layers

Antti Hakola (Corresponding Author), Kalle Heinola, Kenichiro Mizohata, Jari Likonen, Cristian Lungu, Corneliu Porosnicu, Eduardo Alves, Rodrigo Mateus, Iva Bogdanovic Radovic, Zdravko Siketic, Vincenc Nemanic, Mohit Kumar, Cedric Pardanaud, Pascale Roubin, WP PFC contributors

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


We have investigated retention of deuterium in beryllium-containing, laboratory-made films whose properties resemble co-deposits observed on JET-ILW or predicted for ITER. The samples were prepared using High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering and Thermo-ionic Vacuum Arc Deposition. We have observed that retention depends on the flux of D atoms on the growing film, but even more prominently on its composition, structure, and morphology. Especially, inclusion of carbon by 10-15 at% in the layers can increase retention by a factor of 2-10. This we attribute to increasing number of defects as well as aromatic and aliphatic C-D bonds in the samples. Other impurities do not significantly alter the D inventory while more D is retained in samples with rough or highly modified surfaces. Our results show that reproducing the reported D concentrations of ∼5 at% in JET-ILW-like deposits requires keeping the sample temperature at 100-200 °C during the production phase and optimizing the uniformity of deposition fluxes. Data from Be-D samples further indicate that fuel retention in more ITER-relevant co-deposits would be around 1-2 at%.

Original languageEnglish
Article number014038
JournalPhysica Scripta
Issue numberT171
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed
Event17th International Conference on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications, PFMC 2019 - Eindhoven, Netherlands
Duration: 20 May 201924 May 2019


This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014–2018 and 2019–2020 under grant agreement No. 633053. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission. Work performed under EUROfusion WP PFC.


  • Beryllium
  • Co-deposition
  • Fuel retention
  • H2020
  • Euratom


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