Effect of coupled deterioration by freeze-thaw, carbonation and chlorides on concrete service life

Hannele Kuosa, Miguel Ferreira, Erika Holt, Markku Leivo, Erkki Vesikari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

112 Citations (Scopus)


Concrete performance is traditionally based on assessing the effect of a single degradation mechanism. In the field, however, concrete is simultaneously affected by degradation mechanisms, possibly with a synergetic effect on deterioration. This paper presents the results of a Finnish research project assessing coupled deterioration mechanisms including frost attack, carbonation and chloride penetration. Research was composed of an extensive laboratory testing regime, in parallel to the exposure of several concrete specimens at field stations. Testing took into account the effects of ageing and repeated exposure cycles to different conditions. More than 60 concrete mixtures were evaluated with varying binder types and air contents. Testing results together with local weather data serve as a basis for modelling and development of service life assessment tools. The results show the synergetic effect on concrete deterioration of coupled deterioration and quantitatively support that a holistic approach should be adopted for predicting deterioration.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32-40
JournalCement and Concrete Composites
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • carbonation
  • chloride
  • coupled/interacted deterioration
  • durability
  • field testing
  • freeze-thaw
  • frost
  • internal deterioration
  • scaling
  • service life


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