Effect of dilution conditions and driving parameters on nucleation mode particles in diesel exhaust: Laboratory and on-road study

Topi Rönkkö, Annele Virtanen, Kati Vaaraslahti, Jorma Keskinen (Corresponding Author), Liisa Pirjola, Maija Lappi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

137 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We have studied exhaust particle-size distribution of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle in the laboratory and on road. The vehicle was equipped with an oxidation catalyst and fulfilled the Euro 3 emission standard. Special attention was paid to the characteristics and formation tendency of nucleation mode. On road, the nucleation mode formed already 5 m behind the vehicle and did not change significantly when the chase distance was doubled. The meteorological parameters were found to affect nucleation mode particle formation: low temperature and high relative humidity favour the formation. In addition, the nucleation mode mean diameter and concentration are affected by engine torque. This behaviour was found to be identical both on road and in laboratory measurements, indicating different behaviour in different torque regimes. At moderate to high torques (>200 Nm) the total volume of nucleation mode particles increases with increasing engine torque. At lowest torques (<200 Nm), the nucleation mode particle volume increases with decreasing torque. The hydrocarbon concentration is high at lowest torque values while the exhaust sulphur content is higher at highest torque values. The results indicate that at low torques the hydrocarbons have an important role in the nucleation process, while at high torques the process could be sulphur driven.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2893-2901
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Volume40
Issue number16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

torque
nucleation
diesel
dilution
road
engine
sulfur
particle
laboratory
parameter
effect
hydrocarbon
relative humidity
catalyst
particle size
oxidation

Keywords

  • diesel exhaust
  • diesel
  • fine particles
  • particles
  • particle formation
  • nucleation mode
  • dilution
  • on-road measurements

Cite this

Rönkkö, Topi ; Virtanen, Annele ; Vaaraslahti, Kati ; Keskinen, Jorma ; Pirjola, Liisa ; Lappi, Maija. / Effect of dilution conditions and driving parameters on nucleation mode particles in diesel exhaust : Laboratory and on-road study. In: Atmospheric Environment. 2006 ; Vol. 40, No. 16. pp. 2893-2901.
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abstract = "We have studied exhaust particle-size distribution of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle in the laboratory and on road. The vehicle was equipped with an oxidation catalyst and fulfilled the Euro 3 emission standard. Special attention was paid to the characteristics and formation tendency of nucleation mode. On road, the nucleation mode formed already 5 m behind the vehicle and did not change significantly when the chase distance was doubled. The meteorological parameters were found to affect nucleation mode particle formation: low temperature and high relative humidity favour the formation. In addition, the nucleation mode mean diameter and concentration are affected by engine torque. This behaviour was found to be identical both on road and in laboratory measurements, indicating different behaviour in different torque regimes. At moderate to high torques (>200 Nm) the total volume of nucleation mode particles increases with increasing engine torque. At lowest torques (<200 Nm), the nucleation mode particle volume increases with decreasing torque. The hydrocarbon concentration is high at lowest torque values while the exhaust sulphur content is higher at highest torque values. The results indicate that at low torques the hydrocarbons have an important role in the nucleation process, while at high torques the process could be sulphur driven.",
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Effect of dilution conditions and driving parameters on nucleation mode particles in diesel exhaust : Laboratory and on-road study. / Rönkkö, Topi; Virtanen, Annele; Vaaraslahti, Kati; Keskinen, Jorma (Corresponding Author); Pirjola, Liisa; Lappi, Maija.

In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 40, No. 16, 2006, p. 2893-2901.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of dilution conditions and driving parameters on nucleation mode particles in diesel exhaust

T2 - Laboratory and on-road study

AU - Rönkkö, Topi

AU - Virtanen, Annele

AU - Vaaraslahti, Kati

AU - Keskinen, Jorma

AU - Pirjola, Liisa

AU - Lappi, Maija

PY - 2006

Y1 - 2006

N2 - We have studied exhaust particle-size distribution of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle in the laboratory and on road. The vehicle was equipped with an oxidation catalyst and fulfilled the Euro 3 emission standard. Special attention was paid to the characteristics and formation tendency of nucleation mode. On road, the nucleation mode formed already 5 m behind the vehicle and did not change significantly when the chase distance was doubled. The meteorological parameters were found to affect nucleation mode particle formation: low temperature and high relative humidity favour the formation. In addition, the nucleation mode mean diameter and concentration are affected by engine torque. This behaviour was found to be identical both on road and in laboratory measurements, indicating different behaviour in different torque regimes. At moderate to high torques (>200 Nm) the total volume of nucleation mode particles increases with increasing engine torque. At lowest torques (<200 Nm), the nucleation mode particle volume increases with decreasing torque. The hydrocarbon concentration is high at lowest torque values while the exhaust sulphur content is higher at highest torque values. The results indicate that at low torques the hydrocarbons have an important role in the nucleation process, while at high torques the process could be sulphur driven.

AB - We have studied exhaust particle-size distribution of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle in the laboratory and on road. The vehicle was equipped with an oxidation catalyst and fulfilled the Euro 3 emission standard. Special attention was paid to the characteristics and formation tendency of nucleation mode. On road, the nucleation mode formed already 5 m behind the vehicle and did not change significantly when the chase distance was doubled. The meteorological parameters were found to affect nucleation mode particle formation: low temperature and high relative humidity favour the formation. In addition, the nucleation mode mean diameter and concentration are affected by engine torque. This behaviour was found to be identical both on road and in laboratory measurements, indicating different behaviour in different torque regimes. At moderate to high torques (>200 Nm) the total volume of nucleation mode particles increases with increasing engine torque. At lowest torques (<200 Nm), the nucleation mode particle volume increases with decreasing torque. The hydrocarbon concentration is high at lowest torque values while the exhaust sulphur content is higher at highest torque values. The results indicate that at low torques the hydrocarbons have an important role in the nucleation process, while at high torques the process could be sulphur driven.

KW - diesel exhaust

KW - diesel

KW - fine particles

KW - particles

KW - particle formation

KW - nucleation mode

KW - dilution

KW - on-road measurements

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