The mechanics of fresh wood with and without a fatigue pre-treatment that mimics a mechanical pulping process was experimentally studied. The mechanical properties of Norway spruce samples under compression are considered with the macroscopic stress–strain data and from local strain properties via digital image correlation technique. The results highlight the effects of the orientation of the wood annual rings compared to the loading direction and of the pre-fatigue. The wood presents a low yield point when the annual rings are tilted compared to the load axis, but the Young’s modulus and yield stress are higher when the annual rings are either parallel or perpendicular to the load direction. In the last case, buckling of softest layers occurs. The fatigue treatment makes the wood less stiff as deduced from the decreases of Young’s modulus and yield stress, whatever the orientation of annual rings. Secondly, it creates a thin and localized softened layer.