The effects of the fuel injection pressure on a heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust particle emissions were studied. Nonvolatile particle size distributions and gaseous emissions were measured at steady-state engine conditions while the fuel injection pressure was changed. An increase in the injection pressure resulted in an increase in the nonvolatile nucleation mode (core) emission at medium and at high loads. At low loads, the core was not detected. Simultaneously, a decrease in soot mode number concentration and size and an increase in the soot mode distribution width were detected at all loads. Interestingly, the emission of the core was independent of the soot mode concentration at load conditions below 50%. Depending on engine load conditions, growth of the geometric mean diameter of the core mode was also detected with increasing injection pressure. The core mode emission and also the size of the mode increased with increasing NOx emission while the soot mode size and emission decreased simultaneously.
Lähde, T., Rönkkö, T., Happonen, M., Söderström, C., Virtanen, A., Solla, A., Kytö, M., Rohde, D., & Keskinen, J. (2011). Effect of fuel injection pressure on a heavy-duty diesel engine nonvolatile particle emission. Environmental Science & Technology, 45(6), 2504-2509. https://doi.org/10.1021/es103431p