Effect of fuel zinc content on toxicological responses of particulate matter from pellet combustion in vitro

O. Uski, P.I. Jalava, M.S. Happo, T. Torvela, J. Leskinen, J. Mäki-Paakkanen, J. Tissari, O. Sippula, H. Lamberg, J. Jokiniemi, M.-R. Hirvonen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Significant amounts of transition metals such as zinc, cadmium and copper can become enriched in the fine particle fraction during biomass combustion with Zn being one of the most abundant transition metals in wood combustion. These metals may have an important role in the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM). Indeed, many epidemiological studies have found associations between mortality and PM Zn content. The role of Zn toxicity on combustion PM was investigated. Pellets enriched with 170, 480 and 2300 mg Zn/kg of fuel were manufactured. Emission samples were generated using a pellet boiler and the four types of PM samples; native, Zn-low, Zn-medium and Zn-high were collected with an impactor from diluted flue gas. The RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line was exposed for 24 h to different doses (15, 50,150 and 300 µg ml- 1) of the emission samples to investigate their ability to cause cytotoxicity, to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), to altering the cell cycle and to trigger genotoxicity as well as to promote inflammation. Zn enriched pellets combusted in a pellet boiler produced emission PM containing ZnO. Even the Zn-low sample caused extensive cell cycle arrest and there was massive cell death of RAW 264.7 macrophages at the two highest PM doses. Moreover, only the Zn-enriched emission samples induced a dose dependent ROS response in the exposed cells. Inflammatory responses were at a low level but macrophage inflammatory protein 2 reached a statistically significant level after exposure of RAW 264.7 macrophages to ZnO containing emission particles. ZnO content of the samples was associated with significant toxicity in almost all measured endpoints. Thus, ZnO may be a key component producing toxicological responses in the PM emissions from efficient wood combustion. Zn as well as the other transition metals, may contribute a significant amount to the ROS responses evoked by ambient PM.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)331 - 340
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume511
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Particulate Matter
Macrophages
Zinc
particulate matter
combustion
zinc
Transition metals
Cells
Oxygen
Boilers
Toxicity
Wood
transition element
Reactive Oxygen Species
Particulate emissions
Cell death
Cytotoxicity
Flue gases
Cadmium
Biomass

Keywords

  • wood combustion
  • zinc
  • transition metals
  • pellets
  • toxicological properties

Cite this

Uski, O., Jalava, P. I., Happo, M. S., Torvela, T., Leskinen, J., Mäki-Paakkanen, J., ... Hirvonen, M-R. (2015). Effect of fuel zinc content on toxicological responses of particulate matter from pellet combustion in vitro. Science of the Total Environment, 511, 331 - 340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.12.061
Uski, O. ; Jalava, P.I. ; Happo, M.S. ; Torvela, T. ; Leskinen, J. ; Mäki-Paakkanen, J. ; Tissari, J. ; Sippula, O. ; Lamberg, H. ; Jokiniemi, J. ; Hirvonen, M.-R. / Effect of fuel zinc content on toxicological responses of particulate matter from pellet combustion in vitro. In: Science of the Total Environment. 2015 ; Vol. 511. pp. 331 - 340.
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abstract = "Significant amounts of transition metals such as zinc, cadmium and copper can become enriched in the fine particle fraction during biomass combustion with Zn being one of the most abundant transition metals in wood combustion. These metals may have an important role in the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM). Indeed, many epidemiological studies have found associations between mortality and PM Zn content. The role of Zn toxicity on combustion PM was investigated. Pellets enriched with 170, 480 and 2300 mg Zn/kg of fuel were manufactured. Emission samples were generated using a pellet boiler and the four types of PM samples; native, Zn-low, Zn-medium and Zn-high were collected with an impactor from diluted flue gas. The RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line was exposed for 24 h to different doses (15, 50,150 and 300 µg ml- 1) of the emission samples to investigate their ability to cause cytotoxicity, to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), to altering the cell cycle and to trigger genotoxicity as well as to promote inflammation. Zn enriched pellets combusted in a pellet boiler produced emission PM containing ZnO. Even the Zn-low sample caused extensive cell cycle arrest and there was massive cell death of RAW 264.7 macrophages at the two highest PM doses. Moreover, only the Zn-enriched emission samples induced a dose dependent ROS response in the exposed cells. Inflammatory responses were at a low level but macrophage inflammatory protein 2 reached a statistically significant level after exposure of RAW 264.7 macrophages to ZnO containing emission particles. ZnO content of the samples was associated with significant toxicity in almost all measured endpoints. Thus, ZnO may be a key component producing toxicological responses in the PM emissions from efficient wood combustion. Zn as well as the other transition metals, may contribute a significant amount to the ROS responses evoked by ambient PM.",
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Uski, O, Jalava, PI, Happo, MS, Torvela, T, Leskinen, J, Mäki-Paakkanen, J, Tissari, J, Sippula, O, Lamberg, H, Jokiniemi, J & Hirvonen, M-R 2015, 'Effect of fuel zinc content on toxicological responses of particulate matter from pellet combustion in vitro', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 511, pp. 331 - 340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.12.061

Effect of fuel zinc content on toxicological responses of particulate matter from pellet combustion in vitro. / Uski, O.; Jalava, P.I.; Happo, M.S.; Torvela, T.; Leskinen, J.; Mäki-Paakkanen, J.; Tissari, J.; Sippula, O.; Lamberg, H.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hirvonen, M.-R.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 511, 2015, p. 331 - 340.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of fuel zinc content on toxicological responses of particulate matter from pellet combustion in vitro

AU - Uski, O.

AU - Jalava, P.I.

AU - Happo, M.S.

AU - Torvela, T.

AU - Leskinen, J.

AU - Mäki-Paakkanen, J.

AU - Tissari, J.

AU - Sippula, O.

AU - Lamberg, H.

AU - Jokiniemi, J.

AU - Hirvonen, M.-R.

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Significant amounts of transition metals such as zinc, cadmium and copper can become enriched in the fine particle fraction during biomass combustion with Zn being one of the most abundant transition metals in wood combustion. These metals may have an important role in the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM). Indeed, many epidemiological studies have found associations between mortality and PM Zn content. The role of Zn toxicity on combustion PM was investigated. Pellets enriched with 170, 480 and 2300 mg Zn/kg of fuel were manufactured. Emission samples were generated using a pellet boiler and the four types of PM samples; native, Zn-low, Zn-medium and Zn-high were collected with an impactor from diluted flue gas. The RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line was exposed for 24 h to different doses (15, 50,150 and 300 µg ml- 1) of the emission samples to investigate their ability to cause cytotoxicity, to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), to altering the cell cycle and to trigger genotoxicity as well as to promote inflammation. Zn enriched pellets combusted in a pellet boiler produced emission PM containing ZnO. Even the Zn-low sample caused extensive cell cycle arrest and there was massive cell death of RAW 264.7 macrophages at the two highest PM doses. Moreover, only the Zn-enriched emission samples induced a dose dependent ROS response in the exposed cells. Inflammatory responses were at a low level but macrophage inflammatory protein 2 reached a statistically significant level after exposure of RAW 264.7 macrophages to ZnO containing emission particles. ZnO content of the samples was associated with significant toxicity in almost all measured endpoints. Thus, ZnO may be a key component producing toxicological responses in the PM emissions from efficient wood combustion. Zn as well as the other transition metals, may contribute a significant amount to the ROS responses evoked by ambient PM.

AB - Significant amounts of transition metals such as zinc, cadmium and copper can become enriched in the fine particle fraction during biomass combustion with Zn being one of the most abundant transition metals in wood combustion. These metals may have an important role in the toxicological properties of particulate matter (PM). Indeed, many epidemiological studies have found associations between mortality and PM Zn content. The role of Zn toxicity on combustion PM was investigated. Pellets enriched with 170, 480 and 2300 mg Zn/kg of fuel were manufactured. Emission samples were generated using a pellet boiler and the four types of PM samples; native, Zn-low, Zn-medium and Zn-high were collected with an impactor from diluted flue gas. The RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line was exposed for 24 h to different doses (15, 50,150 and 300 µg ml- 1) of the emission samples to investigate their ability to cause cytotoxicity, to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), to altering the cell cycle and to trigger genotoxicity as well as to promote inflammation. Zn enriched pellets combusted in a pellet boiler produced emission PM containing ZnO. Even the Zn-low sample caused extensive cell cycle arrest and there was massive cell death of RAW 264.7 macrophages at the two highest PM doses. Moreover, only the Zn-enriched emission samples induced a dose dependent ROS response in the exposed cells. Inflammatory responses were at a low level but macrophage inflammatory protein 2 reached a statistically significant level after exposure of RAW 264.7 macrophages to ZnO containing emission particles. ZnO content of the samples was associated with significant toxicity in almost all measured endpoints. Thus, ZnO may be a key component producing toxicological responses in the PM emissions from efficient wood combustion. Zn as well as the other transition metals, may contribute a significant amount to the ROS responses evoked by ambient PM.

KW - wood combustion

KW - zinc

KW - transition metals

KW - pellets

KW - toxicological properties

U2 - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.12.061

DO - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.12.061

M3 - Article

VL - 511

SP - 331

EP - 340

JO - Science of the Total Environment

JF - Science of the Total Environment

SN - 0048-9697

ER -