Effect of interacted deterioration parameters on service life of concrete structures in cold environments: Laboratory test result 2009-2011

Markku Leivo, Esko Sistonen, Fahim Al-Neshawy, Jukka Piironen, Hannele Kuosa, Erika Holt, Pertti Koskinen, Cecilia Nordqvist

Research output: Book/ReportReport

Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages97
Publication statusPublished - 2011
MoE publication typeD4 Published development or research report or study

Publication series

SeriesVTT Research Report


  • chloride
  • concrete
  • deterioration
  • durability
  • field station
  • frost resistance
  • service life

Cite this