Effect of leaching on the composition of hydration phases during chloride exposure of mortar

Alisa Machner (Corresponding Author), Marie H. Bjørndal, Harald Justnes, Lucija Hanžič, Aljoša Šajna, Yushan Gu, Benoît Bary, Mohsen Ben Haha, Mette R. Geiker, Klaartje De Weerdt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Mortar specimens were exposed to either a 3% NaCl solution or a 3% NaCl+KOH solution for up to 180 days. Exposure to the NaCl solution provoked much more leaching than the NaCl+KOH exposure. Leaching strongly impacted the chloride ingress profiles. The extended leaching led to a maximum total chloride content almost three times higher and a deeper chloride penetration than exposure with limited leaching after 180 days. The higher maximum chloride content seems to be linked to the enhanced binding capacity of the C-S-H and AFm phases upon moderate leaching as determined by SEM-EDS. The total chloride profile appears to be governed by multi-ion transport and the interaction of chloride with the hydration phases. Service life prediction and performance testing both rely on total chloride profiles and therefore ought to take these interactions into account.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106691
JournalCement and Concrete Research
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Chloride binding
  • Friedel's salt
  • GEMS
  • Kuzel's salt
  • pH
  • Thermodynamic modelling


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