Effect of lubricant on the formation of heavy-duty diesel exhaust nanoparticles

Kati Vaaraslahti, Jorma Keskinen (Corresponding Author), Barouch Giechaskiel, Anu Solla, Timo Murtonen, Hannu Vesala

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    93 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The effect of lubricants on nanoparticle formation in heavy-duty diesel exhaust with and without a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) is studied. A partial flow sampling system with a particle size distribution measurement starting from 3 nm, approximately, is used. Tests are conducted using four different lubricant formulations, a very low sulfur content fuel, and four steady-state driving modes. A well-documented test procedure was followed for each test. Two different kinds of nanoparticle formation were observed, and both were found to be affected by the lubricant but in different way. Without CRDPF, nanoparticles were observed at low loads. No correlation between lubricant sulfur and these nanoparticles was found. These nanoparticles are suggested to form mainly from hydrocarbons. With CRDPF, installed nanoparticles were formed only at high load. The formation correlated positively with the lubricant (and fuel) sulfur level, suggesting that sulfuric compounds are the main nucleating species in this situation. Storage effects of CRDPF had an effect on nanoparticle concentration as the emissions of nanoparticles decreased over time.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)8497 - 8504
    Number of pages8
    JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
    Volume39
    Issue number21
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2005
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Vehicle Emissions
    lubricant
    diesel
    Lubricants
    Nanoparticles
    Sulfur
    filter
    sulfur
    nanoparticle
    effect
    Hydrocarbons
    Particle size analysis
    particle size
    hydrocarbon
    Sampling
    sampling

    Keywords

    • diesel engines
    • diesel exhaust
    • nanoparticles
    • fine particles

    Cite this

    @article{92b5f3c5f5634e72b65aad78b101430c,
    title = "Effect of lubricant on the formation of heavy-duty diesel exhaust nanoparticles",
    abstract = "The effect of lubricants on nanoparticle formation in heavy-duty diesel exhaust with and without a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) is studied. A partial flow sampling system with a particle size distribution measurement starting from 3 nm, approximately, is used. Tests are conducted using four different lubricant formulations, a very low sulfur content fuel, and four steady-state driving modes. A well-documented test procedure was followed for each test. Two different kinds of nanoparticle formation were observed, and both were found to be affected by the lubricant but in different way. Without CRDPF, nanoparticles were observed at low loads. No correlation between lubricant sulfur and these nanoparticles was found. These nanoparticles are suggested to form mainly from hydrocarbons. With CRDPF, installed nanoparticles were formed only at high load. The formation correlated positively with the lubricant (and fuel) sulfur level, suggesting that sulfuric compounds are the main nucleating species in this situation. Storage effects of CRDPF had an effect on nanoparticle concentration as the emissions of nanoparticles decreased over time.",
    keywords = "diesel engines, diesel exhaust, nanoparticles, fine particles",
    author = "Kati Vaaraslahti and Jorma Keskinen and Barouch Giechaskiel and Anu Solla and Timo Murtonen and Hannu Vesala",
    year = "2005",
    doi = "10.1021/es0505503",
    language = "English",
    volume = "39",
    pages = "8497 -- 8504",
    journal = "Environmental Science & Technology",
    issn = "0013-936X",
    publisher = "American Chemical Society ACS",
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    }

    Effect of lubricant on the formation of heavy-duty diesel exhaust nanoparticles. / Vaaraslahti, Kati; Keskinen, Jorma (Corresponding Author); Giechaskiel, Barouch; Solla, Anu; Murtonen, Timo; Vesala, Hannu.

    In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 39, No. 21, 2005, p. 8497 - 8504.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Effect of lubricant on the formation of heavy-duty diesel exhaust nanoparticles

    AU - Vaaraslahti, Kati

    AU - Keskinen, Jorma

    AU - Giechaskiel, Barouch

    AU - Solla, Anu

    AU - Murtonen, Timo

    AU - Vesala, Hannu

    PY - 2005

    Y1 - 2005

    N2 - The effect of lubricants on nanoparticle formation in heavy-duty diesel exhaust with and without a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) is studied. A partial flow sampling system with a particle size distribution measurement starting from 3 nm, approximately, is used. Tests are conducted using four different lubricant formulations, a very low sulfur content fuel, and four steady-state driving modes. A well-documented test procedure was followed for each test. Two different kinds of nanoparticle formation were observed, and both were found to be affected by the lubricant but in different way. Without CRDPF, nanoparticles were observed at low loads. No correlation between lubricant sulfur and these nanoparticles was found. These nanoparticles are suggested to form mainly from hydrocarbons. With CRDPF, installed nanoparticles were formed only at high load. The formation correlated positively with the lubricant (and fuel) sulfur level, suggesting that sulfuric compounds are the main nucleating species in this situation. Storage effects of CRDPF had an effect on nanoparticle concentration as the emissions of nanoparticles decreased over time.

    AB - The effect of lubricants on nanoparticle formation in heavy-duty diesel exhaust with and without a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) is studied. A partial flow sampling system with a particle size distribution measurement starting from 3 nm, approximately, is used. Tests are conducted using four different lubricant formulations, a very low sulfur content fuel, and four steady-state driving modes. A well-documented test procedure was followed for each test. Two different kinds of nanoparticle formation were observed, and both were found to be affected by the lubricant but in different way. Without CRDPF, nanoparticles were observed at low loads. No correlation between lubricant sulfur and these nanoparticles was found. These nanoparticles are suggested to form mainly from hydrocarbons. With CRDPF, installed nanoparticles were formed only at high load. The formation correlated positively with the lubricant (and fuel) sulfur level, suggesting that sulfuric compounds are the main nucleating species in this situation. Storage effects of CRDPF had an effect on nanoparticle concentration as the emissions of nanoparticles decreased over time.

    KW - diesel engines

    KW - diesel exhaust

    KW - nanoparticles

    KW - fine particles

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    DO - 10.1021/es0505503

    M3 - Article

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    SP - 8497

    EP - 8504

    JO - Environmental Science & Technology

    JF - Environmental Science & Technology

    SN - 0013-936X

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    ER -