Effect of lubricant on the formation of heavy-duty diesel exhaust nanoparticles

Kati Vaaraslahti, Jorma Keskinen (Corresponding Author), Barouch Giechaskiel, Anu Solla, Timo Murtonen, Hannu Vesala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

92 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effect of lubricants on nanoparticle formation in heavy-duty diesel exhaust with and without a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) is studied. A partial flow sampling system with a particle size distribution measurement starting from 3 nm, approximately, is used. Tests are conducted using four different lubricant formulations, a very low sulfur content fuel, and four steady-state driving modes. A well-documented test procedure was followed for each test. Two different kinds of nanoparticle formation were observed, and both were found to be affected by the lubricant but in different way. Without CRDPF, nanoparticles were observed at low loads. No correlation between lubricant sulfur and these nanoparticles was found. These nanoparticles are suggested to form mainly from hydrocarbons. With CRDPF, installed nanoparticles were formed only at high load. The formation correlated positively with the lubricant (and fuel) sulfur level, suggesting that sulfuric compounds are the main nucleating species in this situation. Storage effects of CRDPF had an effect on nanoparticle concentration as the emissions of nanoparticles decreased over time.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8497 - 8504
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
Volume39
Issue number21
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Vehicle Emissions
lubricant
diesel
Lubricants
Nanoparticles
Sulfur
filter
sulfur
nanoparticle
effect
Hydrocarbons
Particle size analysis
particle size
hydrocarbon
Sampling
sampling

Keywords

  • diesel engines
  • diesel exhaust
  • nanoparticles
  • fine particles

Cite this

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title = "Effect of lubricant on the formation of heavy-duty diesel exhaust nanoparticles",
abstract = "The effect of lubricants on nanoparticle formation in heavy-duty diesel exhaust with and without a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) is studied. A partial flow sampling system with a particle size distribution measurement starting from 3 nm, approximately, is used. Tests are conducted using four different lubricant formulations, a very low sulfur content fuel, and four steady-state driving modes. A well-documented test procedure was followed for each test. Two different kinds of nanoparticle formation were observed, and both were found to be affected by the lubricant but in different way. Without CRDPF, nanoparticles were observed at low loads. No correlation between lubricant sulfur and these nanoparticles was found. These nanoparticles are suggested to form mainly from hydrocarbons. With CRDPF, installed nanoparticles were formed only at high load. The formation correlated positively with the lubricant (and fuel) sulfur level, suggesting that sulfuric compounds are the main nucleating species in this situation. Storage effects of CRDPF had an effect on nanoparticle concentration as the emissions of nanoparticles decreased over time.",
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author = "Kati Vaaraslahti and Jorma Keskinen and Barouch Giechaskiel and Anu Solla and Timo Murtonen and Hannu Vesala",
year = "2005",
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journal = "Environmental Science & Technology",
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publisher = "American Chemical Society",
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Effect of lubricant on the formation of heavy-duty diesel exhaust nanoparticles. / Vaaraslahti, Kati; Keskinen, Jorma (Corresponding Author); Giechaskiel, Barouch; Solla, Anu; Murtonen, Timo; Vesala, Hannu.

In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 39, No. 21, 2005, p. 8497 - 8504.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of lubricant on the formation of heavy-duty diesel exhaust nanoparticles

AU - Vaaraslahti, Kati

AU - Keskinen, Jorma

AU - Giechaskiel, Barouch

AU - Solla, Anu

AU - Murtonen, Timo

AU - Vesala, Hannu

PY - 2005

Y1 - 2005

N2 - The effect of lubricants on nanoparticle formation in heavy-duty diesel exhaust with and without a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) is studied. A partial flow sampling system with a particle size distribution measurement starting from 3 nm, approximately, is used. Tests are conducted using four different lubricant formulations, a very low sulfur content fuel, and four steady-state driving modes. A well-documented test procedure was followed for each test. Two different kinds of nanoparticle formation were observed, and both were found to be affected by the lubricant but in different way. Without CRDPF, nanoparticles were observed at low loads. No correlation between lubricant sulfur and these nanoparticles was found. These nanoparticles are suggested to form mainly from hydrocarbons. With CRDPF, installed nanoparticles were formed only at high load. The formation correlated positively with the lubricant (and fuel) sulfur level, suggesting that sulfuric compounds are the main nucleating species in this situation. Storage effects of CRDPF had an effect on nanoparticle concentration as the emissions of nanoparticles decreased over time.

AB - The effect of lubricants on nanoparticle formation in heavy-duty diesel exhaust with and without a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) is studied. A partial flow sampling system with a particle size distribution measurement starting from 3 nm, approximately, is used. Tests are conducted using four different lubricant formulations, a very low sulfur content fuel, and four steady-state driving modes. A well-documented test procedure was followed for each test. Two different kinds of nanoparticle formation were observed, and both were found to be affected by the lubricant but in different way. Without CRDPF, nanoparticles were observed at low loads. No correlation between lubricant sulfur and these nanoparticles was found. These nanoparticles are suggested to form mainly from hydrocarbons. With CRDPF, installed nanoparticles were formed only at high load. The formation correlated positively with the lubricant (and fuel) sulfur level, suggesting that sulfuric compounds are the main nucleating species in this situation. Storage effects of CRDPF had an effect on nanoparticle concentration as the emissions of nanoparticles decreased over time.

KW - diesel engines

KW - diesel exhaust

KW - nanoparticles

KW - fine particles

U2 - 10.1021/es0505503

DO - 10.1021/es0505503

M3 - Article

VL - 39

SP - 8497

EP - 8504

JO - Environmental Science & Technology

JF - Environmental Science & Technology

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ER -