Effect of metakaolin on the chloride ingress properties of concrete

R.M. Ferreira (Corresponding Author), J.P. Castro-Gomes, P. Costa, R. Malheiro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


Research and practical experience have shown that partial replacement of cement by metakaolin improves concrete durability as a result of the refinement of the pore structure. While much research has been presented on concrete performance with metakaolin, it is scarce concerning the transport properties of chlorides in concrete with metakaolin, in natural conditions (i.e., un-accelerated). This study determines the chloride diffusion coefficients for several concretes with vary levels of cement replacement with metakaolin, and compares these results with chloride migration coefficients obtained from accelerated laboratory testing. In this study, two cement types (CEM I 42,5R and CEM IV/A 42,5) and two cement contents levels where used with metakaolin replacement levels varying from 10-20%. Concretes where tested for fresh properties, compressive strength, electrical resistivity, chloride ingress characteristics (natural diffusion and migration), and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The results show improved strength, durability properties and chloride penetration resistance of concretes with metakaolin. Furthermore, the use of metakaolin in fly ash concrete improves the early age performance of the concrete (
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1375-1384
JournalKSCE Journal of Civil Engineering
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • concrete
  • durability
  • metakaolin
  • chloride
  • diffusion
  • migration
  • electrical resistivity
  • mercury intrusion porosimetry


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