Effect of oxide layer growth on diode laser beam transformation hardening of steels

Henrikki Pantsar (Corresponding Author), Veli Kujanpää

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The surfaces of low alloy and martensitic stainless steels have been transformation hardened in inert and oxidizing atmospheres using a high-power diode laser beam. The effect of oxide layer growth on the absorptivity of the materials to the laser beam is investigated. When hardening was performed in an inert atmosphere, absorptivity values between 35% and 40% were obtained for both steels, with lower values being associated with higher peak temperatures. In an oxidizing atmosphere, the material composition and the processing variables are shown to play an important role in determining the material absorptivity and the extent of hardening. Absorptivity is found to increase with an increase in peak surface temperature and beam–material interaction time because of the growth of an absorbing oxide layer, particularly in the case of the low alloy steel. The corrosion resistance of the stainless steel grade restricted oxide layer growth, thus limiting the increase in absorptivity. The data obtained illustrate the advantages of diode laser beam hardening over longer-wavelength alternatives, and can be used to select processing parameters. They are also valuable in calibrating existing mathematical models of laser transformation hardening.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2627-2633
Number of pages7
JournalSurface and Coatings Technology
Volume200
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Steel
hardening
Oxides
Laser beams
Hardening
Semiconductor lasers
absorptivity
diodes
steels
laser beams
oxides
inert atmosphere
Martensitic stainless steel
martensitic stainless steels
Stainless Steel
atmospheres
Processing
High strength steel
high strength steels
Corrosion resistance

Keywords

  • laser transformation hardening
  • absorption
  • coupling efficiency
  • steel
  • oxidation
  • LTH
  • austenitic stainless steels

Cite this

Pantsar, Henrikki ; Kujanpää, Veli. / Effect of oxide layer growth on diode laser beam transformation hardening of steels. In: Surface and Coatings Technology. 2006 ; Vol. 200, No. 8. pp. 2627-2633.
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Effect of oxide layer growth on diode laser beam transformation hardening of steels. / Pantsar, Henrikki (Corresponding Author); Kujanpää, Veli.

In: Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 200, No. 8, 2006, p. 2627-2633.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of oxide layer growth on diode laser beam transformation hardening of steels

AU - Pantsar, Henrikki

AU - Kujanpää, Veli

PY - 2006

Y1 - 2006

N2 - The surfaces of low alloy and martensitic stainless steels have been transformation hardened in inert and oxidizing atmospheres using a high-power diode laser beam. The effect of oxide layer growth on the absorptivity of the materials to the laser beam is investigated. When hardening was performed in an inert atmosphere, absorptivity values between 35% and 40% were obtained for both steels, with lower values being associated with higher peak temperatures. In an oxidizing atmosphere, the material composition and the processing variables are shown to play an important role in determining the material absorptivity and the extent of hardening. Absorptivity is found to increase with an increase in peak surface temperature and beam–material interaction time because of the growth of an absorbing oxide layer, particularly in the case of the low alloy steel. The corrosion resistance of the stainless steel grade restricted oxide layer growth, thus limiting the increase in absorptivity. The data obtained illustrate the advantages of diode laser beam hardening over longer-wavelength alternatives, and can be used to select processing parameters. They are also valuable in calibrating existing mathematical models of laser transformation hardening.

AB - The surfaces of low alloy and martensitic stainless steels have been transformation hardened in inert and oxidizing atmospheres using a high-power diode laser beam. The effect of oxide layer growth on the absorptivity of the materials to the laser beam is investigated. When hardening was performed in an inert atmosphere, absorptivity values between 35% and 40% were obtained for both steels, with lower values being associated with higher peak temperatures. In an oxidizing atmosphere, the material composition and the processing variables are shown to play an important role in determining the material absorptivity and the extent of hardening. Absorptivity is found to increase with an increase in peak surface temperature and beam–material interaction time because of the growth of an absorbing oxide layer, particularly in the case of the low alloy steel. The corrosion resistance of the stainless steel grade restricted oxide layer growth, thus limiting the increase in absorptivity. The data obtained illustrate the advantages of diode laser beam hardening over longer-wavelength alternatives, and can be used to select processing parameters. They are also valuable in calibrating existing mathematical models of laser transformation hardening.

KW - laser transformation hardening

KW - absorption

KW - coupling efficiency

KW - steel

KW - oxidation

KW - LTH

KW - austenitic stainless steels

U2 - 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2004.09.001

DO - 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2004.09.001

M3 - Article

VL - 200

SP - 2627

EP - 2633

JO - Surface and Coatings Technology

JF - Surface and Coatings Technology

SN - 0257-8972

IS - 8

ER -