Effect of oxide layer growth on diode laser beam transformation hardening of steels

Henrikki Pantsar (Corresponding Author), Veli Kujanpää

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    30 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The surfaces of low alloy and martensitic stainless steels have been transformation hardened in inert and oxidizing atmospheres using a high-power diode laser beam. The effect of oxide layer growth on the absorptivity of the materials to the laser beam is investigated. When hardening was performed in an inert atmosphere, absorptivity values between 35% and 40% were obtained for both steels, with lower values being associated with higher peak temperatures. In an oxidizing atmosphere, the material composition and the processing variables are shown to play an important role in determining the material absorptivity and the extent of hardening. Absorptivity is found to increase with an increase in peak surface temperature and beam–material interaction time because of the growth of an absorbing oxide layer, particularly in the case of the low alloy steel. The corrosion resistance of the stainless steel grade restricted oxide layer growth, thus limiting the increase in absorptivity. The data obtained illustrate the advantages of diode laser beam hardening over longer-wavelength alternatives, and can be used to select processing parameters. They are also valuable in calibrating existing mathematical models of laser transformation hardening.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2627-2633
    Number of pages7
    JournalSurface and Coatings Technology
    Volume200
    Issue number8
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2006
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Steel
    hardening
    Oxides
    Laser beams
    Hardening
    Semiconductor lasers
    absorptivity
    diodes
    steels
    laser beams
    oxides
    inert atmosphere
    Martensitic stainless steel
    martensitic stainless steels
    Stainless Steel
    atmospheres
    Processing
    High strength steel
    high strength steels
    Corrosion resistance

    Keywords

    • laser transformation hardening
    • absorption
    • coupling efficiency
    • steel
    • oxidation
    • LTH
    • austenitic stainless steels

    Cite this

    Pantsar, Henrikki ; Kujanpää, Veli. / Effect of oxide layer growth on diode laser beam transformation hardening of steels. In: Surface and Coatings Technology. 2006 ; Vol. 200, No. 8. pp. 2627-2633.
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    abstract = "The surfaces of low alloy and martensitic stainless steels have been transformation hardened in inert and oxidizing atmospheres using a high-power diode laser beam. The effect of oxide layer growth on the absorptivity of the materials to the laser beam is investigated. When hardening was performed in an inert atmosphere, absorptivity values between 35{\%} and 40{\%} were obtained for both steels, with lower values being associated with higher peak temperatures. In an oxidizing atmosphere, the material composition and the processing variables are shown to play an important role in determining the material absorptivity and the extent of hardening. Absorptivity is found to increase with an increase in peak surface temperature and beam–material interaction time because of the growth of an absorbing oxide layer, particularly in the case of the low alloy steel. The corrosion resistance of the stainless steel grade restricted oxide layer growth, thus limiting the increase in absorptivity. The data obtained illustrate the advantages of diode laser beam hardening over longer-wavelength alternatives, and can be used to select processing parameters. They are also valuable in calibrating existing mathematical models of laser transformation hardening.",
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    author = "Henrikki Pantsar and Veli Kujanp{\"a}{\"a}",
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    Effect of oxide layer growth on diode laser beam transformation hardening of steels. / Pantsar, Henrikki (Corresponding Author); Kujanpää, Veli.

    In: Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 200, No. 8, 2006, p. 2627-2633.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Effect of oxide layer growth on diode laser beam transformation hardening of steels

    AU - Pantsar, Henrikki

    AU - Kujanpää, Veli

    PY - 2006

    Y1 - 2006

    N2 - The surfaces of low alloy and martensitic stainless steels have been transformation hardened in inert and oxidizing atmospheres using a high-power diode laser beam. The effect of oxide layer growth on the absorptivity of the materials to the laser beam is investigated. When hardening was performed in an inert atmosphere, absorptivity values between 35% and 40% were obtained for both steels, with lower values being associated with higher peak temperatures. In an oxidizing atmosphere, the material composition and the processing variables are shown to play an important role in determining the material absorptivity and the extent of hardening. Absorptivity is found to increase with an increase in peak surface temperature and beam–material interaction time because of the growth of an absorbing oxide layer, particularly in the case of the low alloy steel. The corrosion resistance of the stainless steel grade restricted oxide layer growth, thus limiting the increase in absorptivity. The data obtained illustrate the advantages of diode laser beam hardening over longer-wavelength alternatives, and can be used to select processing parameters. They are also valuable in calibrating existing mathematical models of laser transformation hardening.

    AB - The surfaces of low alloy and martensitic stainless steels have been transformation hardened in inert and oxidizing atmospheres using a high-power diode laser beam. The effect of oxide layer growth on the absorptivity of the materials to the laser beam is investigated. When hardening was performed in an inert atmosphere, absorptivity values between 35% and 40% were obtained for both steels, with lower values being associated with higher peak temperatures. In an oxidizing atmosphere, the material composition and the processing variables are shown to play an important role in determining the material absorptivity and the extent of hardening. Absorptivity is found to increase with an increase in peak surface temperature and beam–material interaction time because of the growth of an absorbing oxide layer, particularly in the case of the low alloy steel. The corrosion resistance of the stainless steel grade restricted oxide layer growth, thus limiting the increase in absorptivity. The data obtained illustrate the advantages of diode laser beam hardening over longer-wavelength alternatives, and can be used to select processing parameters. They are also valuable in calibrating existing mathematical models of laser transformation hardening.

    KW - laser transformation hardening

    KW - absorption

    KW - coupling efficiency

    KW - steel

    KW - oxidation

    KW - LTH

    KW - austenitic stainless steels

    U2 - 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2004.09.001

    DO - 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2004.09.001

    M3 - Article

    VL - 200

    SP - 2627

    EP - 2633

    JO - Surface and Coatings Technology

    JF - Surface and Coatings Technology

    SN - 0257-8972

    IS - 8

    ER -