Effect of precursor chemistry on residual stress of ALD Al2O3 and TiO2 films

Ville Miikkulainen (Corresponding author), Heta Nieminen, Oili Ylivaara, Kenichiro Mizohata, Riikka L. Puurunen, Mikko Ritala

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

    Abstract

    Deposited thin films carry residual stress that can be classified into two categories. One is thermal stress that results from differences in thermal expansion coefficients between the substrate and the film, and the other is so called intrinsic stress that is a result of the deposition process itself. Stress can be either compressive or tensile. In extreme case, films under excessive stress can lead to cracking, buckling or delamination of the film. In polycrystalline films, the residual intrinsic stress originates from morphology, such as grain coalescence, crystallization and phase transformation, and from impurities and voids, and development of these parameters during the deposition process. In amorphous films, residual stress also occurs but its sources are more difficult to elucidate. Residual stress of ALD films has been studied for example for Al2O3, TiO2, and the hybrid material alucone.1-4 These studies have focused on effects of deposition temperature, pulsing parameters, film thickness, and post-deposition annealing temperature. In the present paper we report results on how the precursor chemistry affects the residual stress of ALD Al2O3 and TiO2 films deposited at 250 °C to 50 nm thickness onto 150 mm Si wafers. We employed several metal precursors, such as AlMe3, AlCl3, TiCl4 and Ti(OiPr)4 as well as different oxygen sources (H2O, O3, CH3OH) and studied the effect of both the metal precursor and oxygen source on the residual stress of the deposited films. In addition to stress measurements, film characterization was done by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Time-of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis for fundamental morphological and compositional properties. Characterization data will be discussed with the residual stress results. Notably large differences in the residual stress were found as a function of precursor chemistry, for both Al2O3 and TiO2.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationTechnical Program & Abstracts
    PublisherAmerican Vacuum Society AVS
    Publication statusPublished - 2016
    Event16th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition, ALD 2016 - Dublin, Ireland
    Duration: 24 Jul 201627 Jul 2016

    Conference

    Conference16th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition, ALD 2016
    Abbreviated titleALD 2016
    CountryIreland
    CityDublin
    Period24/07/1627/07/16

    Fingerprint

    residual stress
    chemistry
    stress measurement
    oxygen
    buckling
    thermal stresses
    metals
    coalescing
    phase transformations
    voids
    thermal expansion
    film thickness
    wafers
    crystallization
    impurities
    scanning electron microscopy
    annealing
    temperature
    coefficients
    thin films

    Keywords

    • ALD
    • Atomic Layer Deposition
    • Al203
    • TiO2
    • precursors
    • residual stress

    Cite this

    Miikkulainen, V., Nieminen, H., Ylivaara, O., Mizohata, K., Puurunen, R. L., & Ritala, M. (2016). Effect of precursor chemistry on residual stress of ALD Al2O3 and TiO2 films. In Technical Program & Abstracts American Vacuum Society AVS.
    Miikkulainen, Ville ; Nieminen, Heta ; Ylivaara, Oili ; Mizohata, Kenichiro ; Puurunen, Riikka L. ; Ritala, Mikko. / Effect of precursor chemistry on residual stress of ALD Al2O3 and TiO2 films. Technical Program & Abstracts. American Vacuum Society AVS, 2016.
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    title = "Effect of precursor chemistry on residual stress of ALD Al2O3 and TiO2 films",
    abstract = "Deposited thin films carry residual stress that can be classified into two categories. One is thermal stress that results from differences in thermal expansion coefficients between the substrate and the film, and the other is so called intrinsic stress that is a result of the deposition process itself. Stress can be either compressive or tensile. In extreme case, films under excessive stress can lead to cracking, buckling or delamination of the film. In polycrystalline films, the residual intrinsic stress originates from morphology, such as grain coalescence, crystallization and phase transformation, and from impurities and voids, and development of these parameters during the deposition process. In amorphous films, residual stress also occurs but its sources are more difficult to elucidate. Residual stress of ALD films has been studied for example for Al2O3, TiO2, and the hybrid material alucone.1-4 These studies have focused on effects of deposition temperature, pulsing parameters, film thickness, and post-deposition annealing temperature. In the present paper we report results on how the precursor chemistry affects the residual stress of ALD Al2O3 and TiO2 films deposited at 250 °C to 50 nm thickness onto 150 mm Si wafers. We employed several metal precursors, such as AlMe3, AlCl3, TiCl4 and Ti(OiPr)4 as well as different oxygen sources (H2O, O3, CH3OH) and studied the effect of both the metal precursor and oxygen source on the residual stress of the deposited films. In addition to stress measurements, film characterization was done by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Time-of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis for fundamental morphological and compositional properties. Characterization data will be discussed with the residual stress results. Notably large differences in the residual stress were found as a function of precursor chemistry, for both Al2O3 and TiO2.",
    keywords = "ALD, Atomic Layer Deposition, Al203, TiO2, precursors, residual stress",
    author = "Ville Miikkulainen and Heta Nieminen and Oili Ylivaara and Kenichiro Mizohata and Puurunen, {Riikka L.} and Mikko Ritala",
    note = "Published abstract of a poster presentation Project 102086 ALDCoE",
    year = "2016",
    language = "English",
    booktitle = "Technical Program & Abstracts",
    publisher = "American Vacuum Society AVS",
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    Miikkulainen, V, Nieminen, H, Ylivaara, O, Mizohata, K, Puurunen, RL & Ritala, M 2016, Effect of precursor chemistry on residual stress of ALD Al2O3 and TiO2 films. in Technical Program & Abstracts. American Vacuum Society AVS, 16th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition, ALD 2016, Dublin, Ireland, 24/07/16.

    Effect of precursor chemistry on residual stress of ALD Al2O3 and TiO2 films. / Miikkulainen, Ville (Corresponding author); Nieminen, Heta; Ylivaara, Oili; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Puurunen, Riikka L.; Ritala, Mikko.

    Technical Program & Abstracts. American Vacuum Society AVS, 2016.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference abstract in proceedingsScientific

    TY - CHAP

    T1 - Effect of precursor chemistry on residual stress of ALD Al2O3 and TiO2 films

    AU - Miikkulainen, Ville

    AU - Nieminen, Heta

    AU - Ylivaara, Oili

    AU - Mizohata, Kenichiro

    AU - Puurunen, Riikka L.

    AU - Ritala, Mikko

    N1 - Published abstract of a poster presentation Project 102086 ALDCoE

    PY - 2016

    Y1 - 2016

    N2 - Deposited thin films carry residual stress that can be classified into two categories. One is thermal stress that results from differences in thermal expansion coefficients between the substrate and the film, and the other is so called intrinsic stress that is a result of the deposition process itself. Stress can be either compressive or tensile. In extreme case, films under excessive stress can lead to cracking, buckling or delamination of the film. In polycrystalline films, the residual intrinsic stress originates from morphology, such as grain coalescence, crystallization and phase transformation, and from impurities and voids, and development of these parameters during the deposition process. In amorphous films, residual stress also occurs but its sources are more difficult to elucidate. Residual stress of ALD films has been studied for example for Al2O3, TiO2, and the hybrid material alucone.1-4 These studies have focused on effects of deposition temperature, pulsing parameters, film thickness, and post-deposition annealing temperature. In the present paper we report results on how the precursor chemistry affects the residual stress of ALD Al2O3 and TiO2 films deposited at 250 °C to 50 nm thickness onto 150 mm Si wafers. We employed several metal precursors, such as AlMe3, AlCl3, TiCl4 and Ti(OiPr)4 as well as different oxygen sources (H2O, O3, CH3OH) and studied the effect of both the metal precursor and oxygen source on the residual stress of the deposited films. In addition to stress measurements, film characterization was done by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Time-of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis for fundamental morphological and compositional properties. Characterization data will be discussed with the residual stress results. Notably large differences in the residual stress were found as a function of precursor chemistry, for both Al2O3 and TiO2.

    AB - Deposited thin films carry residual stress that can be classified into two categories. One is thermal stress that results from differences in thermal expansion coefficients between the substrate and the film, and the other is so called intrinsic stress that is a result of the deposition process itself. Stress can be either compressive or tensile. In extreme case, films under excessive stress can lead to cracking, buckling or delamination of the film. In polycrystalline films, the residual intrinsic stress originates from morphology, such as grain coalescence, crystallization and phase transformation, and from impurities and voids, and development of these parameters during the deposition process. In amorphous films, residual stress also occurs but its sources are more difficult to elucidate. Residual stress of ALD films has been studied for example for Al2O3, TiO2, and the hybrid material alucone.1-4 These studies have focused on effects of deposition temperature, pulsing parameters, film thickness, and post-deposition annealing temperature. In the present paper we report results on how the precursor chemistry affects the residual stress of ALD Al2O3 and TiO2 films deposited at 250 °C to 50 nm thickness onto 150 mm Si wafers. We employed several metal precursors, such as AlMe3, AlCl3, TiCl4 and Ti(OiPr)4 as well as different oxygen sources (H2O, O3, CH3OH) and studied the effect of both the metal precursor and oxygen source on the residual stress of the deposited films. In addition to stress measurements, film characterization was done by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Time-of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis for fundamental morphological and compositional properties. Characterization data will be discussed with the residual stress results. Notably large differences in the residual stress were found as a function of precursor chemistry, for both Al2O3 and TiO2.

    KW - ALD

    KW - Atomic Layer Deposition

    KW - Al203

    KW - TiO2

    KW - precursors

    KW - residual stress

    M3 - Conference abstract in proceedings

    BT - Technical Program & Abstracts

    PB - American Vacuum Society AVS

    ER -

    Miikkulainen V, Nieminen H, Ylivaara O, Mizohata K, Puurunen RL, Ritala M. Effect of precursor chemistry on residual stress of ALD Al2O3 and TiO2 films. In Technical Program & Abstracts. American Vacuum Society AVS. 2016