Effect of selective dissolution on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in alkaline solutions

Heikki Leinonen, Pekka Pohjanne, Tapio Saukkonen, Tanja Schildt, Jyrki Romu, Hannu Hänninen

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

    Abstract

    The formation of nickel-rich layers on austenitic stainless steels in strong caustic solutions was reported in 1970's.
    Recently, a more detailed study has shown the nature of the de-alloying process and established firm links with the other metal-environment systems that show de-alloying and associated stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in strong caustic environments. In this study, the role of de-alloying in SCC of the austenitic and duplex stainless steel AISI 304 (EN1.4301) and S322205 (EN1.4462) is evaluated in 50% NaOH and also in NaCl/Na2S containing caustic environments (pulping liquors) at 413 K (140ºC) and 463 K (190ºC).
    The results show that selective dissolution of alloying elements occurs on surface of the specimens and at the crack tip and strain is necessary for selective dissolution. The proposal that the rate determining step in SCC is generation of vacancies by selective dissolution at the crack tip will be confirmed in the further detailed examinations.
    Chromium, iron and molybdenum are dissolving selectively and/or precipitating during the process which affects the general corrosion and SCC susceptibility depending on the alloy composition and microstructure of the steel.
    FEG-SEM examination shows that the de-alloyed layer exhibits extremely fine nanoporosity.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationProceedings
    Subtitle of host publicationCorrosion 2011, Conference & Expo
    Place of PublicationHouston, TX
    Number of pages17
    Volume2
    Publication statusPublished - 2011
    MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
    EventCorrosion 2011, Conference & Expo  - Houston, TX, United States
    Duration: 13 Mar 201117 Mar 2011

    Conference

    ConferenceCorrosion 2011, Conference & Expo 
    CountryUnited States
    CityHouston, TX
    Period13/03/1117/03/11

    Fingerprint

    Stress corrosion cracking
    Dissolution
    Stainless steel
    Alloying
    Crack tips
    Alloying elements
    Austenitic stainless steel
    Molybdenum
    Vacancies
    Chromium
    Nickel
    Corrosion
    Iron
    Microstructure
    Scanning electron microscopy
    Steel
    Metals
    Chemical analysis

    Keywords

    • selective dissolution
    • de-alloying
    • duplex stainless steel
    • austenitic stainless steel
    • stress corrosion cracking
    • caustic solution

    Cite this

    Leinonen, H., Pohjanne, P., Saukkonen, T., Schildt, T., Romu, J., & Hänninen, H. (2011). Effect of selective dissolution on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in alkaline solutions. In Proceedings: Corrosion 2011, Conference & Expo (Vol. 2). [11160] Houston, TX.
    Leinonen, Heikki ; Pohjanne, Pekka ; Saukkonen, Tapio ; Schildt, Tanja ; Romu, Jyrki ; Hänninen, Hannu. / Effect of selective dissolution on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in alkaline solutions. Proceedings: Corrosion 2011, Conference & Expo . Vol. 2 Houston, TX, 2011.
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    title = "Effect of selective dissolution on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in alkaline solutions",
    abstract = "The formation of nickel-rich layers on austenitic stainless steels in strong caustic solutions was reported in 1970's. Recently, a more detailed study has shown the nature of the de-alloying process and established firm links with the other metal-environment systems that show de-alloying and associated stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in strong caustic environments. In this study, the role of de-alloying in SCC of the austenitic and duplex stainless steel AISI 304 (EN1.4301) and S322205 (EN1.4462) is evaluated in 50{\%} NaOH and also in NaCl/Na2S containing caustic environments (pulping liquors) at 413 K (140ºC) and 463 K (190ºC). The results show that selective dissolution of alloying elements occurs on surface of the specimens and at the crack tip and strain is necessary for selective dissolution. The proposal that the rate determining step in SCC is generation of vacancies by selective dissolution at the crack tip will be confirmed in the further detailed examinations. Chromium, iron and molybdenum are dissolving selectively and/or precipitating during the process which affects the general corrosion and SCC susceptibility depending on the alloy composition and microstructure of the steel. FEG-SEM examination shows that the de-alloyed layer exhibits extremely fine nanoporosity.",
    keywords = "selective dissolution, de-alloying, duplex stainless steel, austenitic stainless steel, stress corrosion cracking, caustic solution",
    author = "Heikki Leinonen and Pekka Pohjanne and Tapio Saukkonen and Tanja Schildt and Jyrki Romu and Hannu H{\"a}nninen",
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    Leinonen, H, Pohjanne, P, Saukkonen, T, Schildt, T, Romu, J & Hänninen, H 2011, Effect of selective dissolution on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in alkaline solutions. in Proceedings: Corrosion 2011, Conference & Expo . vol. 2, 11160, Houston, TX, Corrosion 2011, Conference & Expo , Houston, TX, United States, 13/03/11.

    Effect of selective dissolution on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in alkaline solutions. / Leinonen, Heikki; Pohjanne, Pekka; Saukkonen, Tapio; Schildt, Tanja; Romu, Jyrki; Hänninen, Hannu.

    Proceedings: Corrosion 2011, Conference & Expo . Vol. 2 Houston, TX, 2011. 11160.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

    TY - GEN

    T1 - Effect of selective dissolution on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in alkaline solutions

    AU - Leinonen, Heikki

    AU - Pohjanne, Pekka

    AU - Saukkonen, Tapio

    AU - Schildt, Tanja

    AU - Romu, Jyrki

    AU - Hänninen, Hannu

    PY - 2011

    Y1 - 2011

    N2 - The formation of nickel-rich layers on austenitic stainless steels in strong caustic solutions was reported in 1970's. Recently, a more detailed study has shown the nature of the de-alloying process and established firm links with the other metal-environment systems that show de-alloying and associated stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in strong caustic environments. In this study, the role of de-alloying in SCC of the austenitic and duplex stainless steel AISI 304 (EN1.4301) and S322205 (EN1.4462) is evaluated in 50% NaOH and also in NaCl/Na2S containing caustic environments (pulping liquors) at 413 K (140ºC) and 463 K (190ºC). The results show that selective dissolution of alloying elements occurs on surface of the specimens and at the crack tip and strain is necessary for selective dissolution. The proposal that the rate determining step in SCC is generation of vacancies by selective dissolution at the crack tip will be confirmed in the further detailed examinations. Chromium, iron and molybdenum are dissolving selectively and/or precipitating during the process which affects the general corrosion and SCC susceptibility depending on the alloy composition and microstructure of the steel. FEG-SEM examination shows that the de-alloyed layer exhibits extremely fine nanoporosity.

    AB - The formation of nickel-rich layers on austenitic stainless steels in strong caustic solutions was reported in 1970's. Recently, a more detailed study has shown the nature of the de-alloying process and established firm links with the other metal-environment systems that show de-alloying and associated stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in strong caustic environments. In this study, the role of de-alloying in SCC of the austenitic and duplex stainless steel AISI 304 (EN1.4301) and S322205 (EN1.4462) is evaluated in 50% NaOH and also in NaCl/Na2S containing caustic environments (pulping liquors) at 413 K (140ºC) and 463 K (190ºC). The results show that selective dissolution of alloying elements occurs on surface of the specimens and at the crack tip and strain is necessary for selective dissolution. The proposal that the rate determining step in SCC is generation of vacancies by selective dissolution at the crack tip will be confirmed in the further detailed examinations. Chromium, iron and molybdenum are dissolving selectively and/or precipitating during the process which affects the general corrosion and SCC susceptibility depending on the alloy composition and microstructure of the steel. FEG-SEM examination shows that the de-alloyed layer exhibits extremely fine nanoporosity.

    KW - selective dissolution

    KW - de-alloying

    KW - duplex stainless steel

    KW - austenitic stainless steel

    KW - stress corrosion cracking

    KW - caustic solution

    M3 - Conference article in proceedings

    SN - 978-1-6178-2593-4

    VL - 2

    BT - Proceedings

    CY - Houston, TX

    ER -

    Leinonen H, Pohjanne P, Saukkonen T, Schildt T, Romu J, Hänninen H. Effect of selective dissolution on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of austenitic and duplex stainless steels in alkaline solutions. In Proceedings: Corrosion 2011, Conference & Expo . Vol. 2. Houston, TX. 2011. 11160