Effect of sodium citrate, carboxymethyl cellulose and carrageenan levels on quality characteristics of low-salt and low-fat bologna type sausages

Marita Ruusunen (Corresponding Author), Jukka Vainionpää, Eero Puolanne, Marika Lyly, Liisa Lähteenmäki, Markku Niemistö, Raija Ahvenainen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

46 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Quality characteristics of low-salt bologna-type sausage manufactured with sodium citrate (NAC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and carrageenan (CAR) were examined. Three levels of salt, NAC, CMC and CAR, and two levels of fat were used. Batter and sausage pH values were measured and the frying loss of sausages was analysed by frying slices in an electric grill. Firmness, juiciness, saltiness and flavour intensity of the sausages were sensorically evaluated. Altogether 20 separate sausage batches were prepared. In low-salt sausages containing less than 1.4% NaCl, the use of NAC, CAR and CMC decreased frying loss and increased saltiness. NAC and CAR also increased flavour intensity, but CMC did not. Furthermore, NAC, CAR and CMC increased the firmness of the low-salt sausage, while only NAC increased juiciness when the NaCl content was below 1.4%. NAC increases, however, the sodium content of the product. Therefore, it can be concluded that in low-salt sausages no additive alone is suitable. A mixture of NAC and CAR appears to be the best combination.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)371-381
Number of pages11
JournalMeat Science
Volume64
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2003
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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bologna
sodium citrate
Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium
carboxymethylcellulose
Carrageenan
carrageenan
sausages
Salts
Fats
salts
lipids
frying
saltiness
juiciness
firmness
flavor
batters
Sodium
sodium

Keywords

  • Low-salt sausage
  • Citrate
  • Carboxymethyl cellulose
  • Carrageenan

Cite this

Ruusunen, M., Vainionpää, J., Puolanne, E., Lyly, M., Lähteenmäki, L., Niemistö, M., & Ahvenainen, R. (2003). Effect of sodium citrate, carboxymethyl cellulose and carrageenan levels on quality characteristics of low-salt and low-fat bologna type sausages. Meat Science, 64(4), 371-381. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(02)00178-X
Ruusunen, Marita ; Vainionpää, Jukka ; Puolanne, Eero ; Lyly, Marika ; Lähteenmäki, Liisa ; Niemistö, Markku ; Ahvenainen, Raija. / Effect of sodium citrate, carboxymethyl cellulose and carrageenan levels on quality characteristics of low-salt and low-fat bologna type sausages. In: Meat Science. 2003 ; Vol. 64, No. 4. pp. 371-381.
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abstract = "Quality characteristics of low-salt bologna-type sausage manufactured with sodium citrate (NAC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and carrageenan (CAR) were examined. Three levels of salt, NAC, CMC and CAR, and two levels of fat were used. Batter and sausage pH values were measured and the frying loss of sausages was analysed by frying slices in an electric grill. Firmness, juiciness, saltiness and flavour intensity of the sausages were sensorically evaluated. Altogether 20 separate sausage batches were prepared. In low-salt sausages containing less than 1.4{\%} NaCl, the use of NAC, CAR and CMC decreased frying loss and increased saltiness. NAC and CAR also increased flavour intensity, but CMC did not. Furthermore, NAC, CAR and CMC increased the firmness of the low-salt sausage, while only NAC increased juiciness when the NaCl content was below 1.4{\%}. NAC increases, however, the sodium content of the product. Therefore, it can be concluded that in low-salt sausages no additive alone is suitable. A mixture of NAC and CAR appears to be the best combination.",
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author = "Marita Ruusunen and Jukka Vainionp{\"a}{\"a} and Eero Puolanne and Marika Lyly and Liisa L{\"a}hteenm{\"a}ki and Markku Niemist{\"o} and Raija Ahvenainen",
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Ruusunen, M, Vainionpää, J, Puolanne, E, Lyly, M, Lähteenmäki, L, Niemistö, M & Ahvenainen, R 2003, 'Effect of sodium citrate, carboxymethyl cellulose and carrageenan levels on quality characteristics of low-salt and low-fat bologna type sausages', Meat Science, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 371-381. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(02)00178-X

Effect of sodium citrate, carboxymethyl cellulose and carrageenan levels on quality characteristics of low-salt and low-fat bologna type sausages. / Ruusunen, Marita (Corresponding Author); Vainionpää, Jukka; Puolanne, Eero; Lyly, Marika; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Niemistö, Markku; Ahvenainen, Raija.

In: Meat Science, Vol. 64, No. 4, 2003, p. 371-381.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of sodium citrate, carboxymethyl cellulose and carrageenan levels on quality characteristics of low-salt and low-fat bologna type sausages

AU - Ruusunen, Marita

AU - Vainionpää, Jukka

AU - Puolanne, Eero

AU - Lyly, Marika

AU - Lähteenmäki, Liisa

AU - Niemistö, Markku

AU - Ahvenainen, Raija

PY - 2003

Y1 - 2003

N2 - Quality characteristics of low-salt bologna-type sausage manufactured with sodium citrate (NAC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and carrageenan (CAR) were examined. Three levels of salt, NAC, CMC and CAR, and two levels of fat were used. Batter and sausage pH values were measured and the frying loss of sausages was analysed by frying slices in an electric grill. Firmness, juiciness, saltiness and flavour intensity of the sausages were sensorically evaluated. Altogether 20 separate sausage batches were prepared. In low-salt sausages containing less than 1.4% NaCl, the use of NAC, CAR and CMC decreased frying loss and increased saltiness. NAC and CAR also increased flavour intensity, but CMC did not. Furthermore, NAC, CAR and CMC increased the firmness of the low-salt sausage, while only NAC increased juiciness when the NaCl content was below 1.4%. NAC increases, however, the sodium content of the product. Therefore, it can be concluded that in low-salt sausages no additive alone is suitable. A mixture of NAC and CAR appears to be the best combination.

AB - Quality characteristics of low-salt bologna-type sausage manufactured with sodium citrate (NAC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and carrageenan (CAR) were examined. Three levels of salt, NAC, CMC and CAR, and two levels of fat were used. Batter and sausage pH values were measured and the frying loss of sausages was analysed by frying slices in an electric grill. Firmness, juiciness, saltiness and flavour intensity of the sausages were sensorically evaluated. Altogether 20 separate sausage batches were prepared. In low-salt sausages containing less than 1.4% NaCl, the use of NAC, CAR and CMC decreased frying loss and increased saltiness. NAC and CAR also increased flavour intensity, but CMC did not. Furthermore, NAC, CAR and CMC increased the firmness of the low-salt sausage, while only NAC increased juiciness when the NaCl content was below 1.4%. NAC increases, however, the sodium content of the product. Therefore, it can be concluded that in low-salt sausages no additive alone is suitable. A mixture of NAC and CAR appears to be the best combination.

KW - Low-salt sausage

KW - Citrate

KW - Carboxymethyl cellulose

KW - Carrageenan

U2 - 10.1016/S0309-1740(02)00178-X

DO - 10.1016/S0309-1740(02)00178-X

M3 - Article

VL - 64

SP - 371

EP - 381

JO - Meat Science

JF - Meat Science

SN - 0309-1740

IS - 4

ER -