Effects of a catalytic converter on PCDD/F, chlorophenol and PAH emissions in residential wood combustion

T. Kaivosoja (Corresponding Author), A. Virén, J. Tissari, J. Ruuskanen, J. Tarhanen, O. Sippula, Jorma Jokiniemi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Catalytic converters can be used to decrease carbon monoxide, organic compounds and soot from small-scale wood-fired appliances. The reduction is based on the oxidation of gaseous and particulate pollutants promoted by catalytic transition metal surfaces. However, many transition metals have also strong catalytic effect on PCDD/F formation.

In this study birch logs were burned in a wood-fired stove (18 kW) with and without a catalytic converter with palladium and platinum as catalysts. PCDD/F, chlorophenol and PAH concentrations were analyzed from three phases of combustion (ignition, pyrolysis and burnout) and from the whole combustion cycle.

PCDD/F emissions without the catalytic converter were at a level previously measured for wood combustion (0.15–0.74 ng Nm−3). PAH emissions without the catalytic converter were high (47–85 mg Nm−3) which is typical for batch combustion of wood logs.

Total PAH concentrations were lower (on average 0.8-fold), and chlorophenol and PCDD/F levels were substantially higher (4.3-fold and 8.7-fold, respectively) when the catalytic converter was used. Increase in the chlorophenol and PCDD/F concentrations was most likely due to the catalytic effect of the platinum and palladium. Platinum and palladium may catalyze chlorination of PCDD/Fs via the Deacon reaction or an oxidation process.

The influence of emissions from wood combustion to human health and the environment is a sum of effects caused by different compounds formed in the combustion. Therefore, the usage of platinum and palladium based catalytic converters to reduce emissions from residential wood combustion should be critically evaluated before wide-range utilization of the technology.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)278-285
JournalChemosphere
Volume88
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Chlorophenols
Catalytic converters
chlorophenol
PCDD
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Wood
PAH
combustion
Palladium
Platinum
palladium
platinum
transition element
fold
Transition metals
Metals
Clergy
Soot
Betula
Halogenation

Keywords

  • Catalyst
  • chlorophenol
  • PAH
  • PCDD/F
  • wood combustion

Cite this

Kaivosoja, T., Virén, A., Tissari, J., Ruuskanen, J., Tarhanen, J., Sippula, O., & Jokiniemi, J. (2012). Effects of a catalytic converter on PCDD/F, chlorophenol and PAH emissions in residential wood combustion. Chemosphere, 88(3), 278-285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.02.027
Kaivosoja, T. ; Virén, A. ; Tissari, J. ; Ruuskanen, J. ; Tarhanen, J. ; Sippula, O. ; Jokiniemi, Jorma. / Effects of a catalytic converter on PCDD/F, chlorophenol and PAH emissions in residential wood combustion. In: Chemosphere. 2012 ; Vol. 88, No. 3. pp. 278-285.
@article{0da7733965314381acfa1d706ab9a3b8,
title = "Effects of a catalytic converter on PCDD/F, chlorophenol and PAH emissions in residential wood combustion",
abstract = "Catalytic converters can be used to decrease carbon monoxide, organic compounds and soot from small-scale wood-fired appliances. The reduction is based on the oxidation of gaseous and particulate pollutants promoted by catalytic transition metal surfaces. However, many transition metals have also strong catalytic effect on PCDD/F formation.In this study birch logs were burned in a wood-fired stove (18 kW) with and without a catalytic converter with palladium and platinum as catalysts. PCDD/F, chlorophenol and PAH concentrations were analyzed from three phases of combustion (ignition, pyrolysis and burnout) and from the whole combustion cycle.PCDD/F emissions without the catalytic converter were at a level previously measured for wood combustion (0.15–0.74 ng Nm−3). PAH emissions without the catalytic converter were high (47–85 mg Nm−3) which is typical for batch combustion of wood logs.Total PAH concentrations were lower (on average 0.8-fold), and chlorophenol and PCDD/F levels were substantially higher (4.3-fold and 8.7-fold, respectively) when the catalytic converter was used. Increase in the chlorophenol and PCDD/F concentrations was most likely due to the catalytic effect of the platinum and palladium. Platinum and palladium may catalyze chlorination of PCDD/Fs via the Deacon reaction or an oxidation process.The influence of emissions from wood combustion to human health and the environment is a sum of effects caused by different compounds formed in the combustion. Therefore, the usage of platinum and palladium based catalytic converters to reduce emissions from residential wood combustion should be critically evaluated before wide-range utilization of the technology.",
keywords = "Catalyst, chlorophenol, PAH, PCDD/F, wood combustion",
author = "T. Kaivosoja and A. Vir{\'e}n and J. Tissari and J. Ruuskanen and J. Tarhanen and O. Sippula and Jorma Jokiniemi",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.02.027",
language = "English",
volume = "88",
pages = "278--285",
journal = "Chemosphere",
issn = "0045-6535",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "3",

}

Kaivosoja, T, Virén, A, Tissari, J, Ruuskanen, J, Tarhanen, J, Sippula, O & Jokiniemi, J 2012, 'Effects of a catalytic converter on PCDD/F, chlorophenol and PAH emissions in residential wood combustion', Chemosphere, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 278-285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.02.027

Effects of a catalytic converter on PCDD/F, chlorophenol and PAH emissions in residential wood combustion. / Kaivosoja, T. (Corresponding Author); Virén, A.; Tissari, J.; Ruuskanen, J.; Tarhanen, J.; Sippula, O.; Jokiniemi, Jorma.

In: Chemosphere, Vol. 88, No. 3, 2012, p. 278-285.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of a catalytic converter on PCDD/F, chlorophenol and PAH emissions in residential wood combustion

AU - Kaivosoja, T.

AU - Virén, A.

AU - Tissari, J.

AU - Ruuskanen, J.

AU - Tarhanen, J.

AU - Sippula, O.

AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - Catalytic converters can be used to decrease carbon monoxide, organic compounds and soot from small-scale wood-fired appliances. The reduction is based on the oxidation of gaseous and particulate pollutants promoted by catalytic transition metal surfaces. However, many transition metals have also strong catalytic effect on PCDD/F formation.In this study birch logs were burned in a wood-fired stove (18 kW) with and without a catalytic converter with palladium and platinum as catalysts. PCDD/F, chlorophenol and PAH concentrations were analyzed from three phases of combustion (ignition, pyrolysis and burnout) and from the whole combustion cycle.PCDD/F emissions without the catalytic converter were at a level previously measured for wood combustion (0.15–0.74 ng Nm−3). PAH emissions without the catalytic converter were high (47–85 mg Nm−3) which is typical for batch combustion of wood logs.Total PAH concentrations were lower (on average 0.8-fold), and chlorophenol and PCDD/F levels were substantially higher (4.3-fold and 8.7-fold, respectively) when the catalytic converter was used. Increase in the chlorophenol and PCDD/F concentrations was most likely due to the catalytic effect of the platinum and palladium. Platinum and palladium may catalyze chlorination of PCDD/Fs via the Deacon reaction or an oxidation process.The influence of emissions from wood combustion to human health and the environment is a sum of effects caused by different compounds formed in the combustion. Therefore, the usage of platinum and palladium based catalytic converters to reduce emissions from residential wood combustion should be critically evaluated before wide-range utilization of the technology.

AB - Catalytic converters can be used to decrease carbon monoxide, organic compounds and soot from small-scale wood-fired appliances. The reduction is based on the oxidation of gaseous and particulate pollutants promoted by catalytic transition metal surfaces. However, many transition metals have also strong catalytic effect on PCDD/F formation.In this study birch logs were burned in a wood-fired stove (18 kW) with and without a catalytic converter with palladium and platinum as catalysts. PCDD/F, chlorophenol and PAH concentrations were analyzed from three phases of combustion (ignition, pyrolysis and burnout) and from the whole combustion cycle.PCDD/F emissions without the catalytic converter were at a level previously measured for wood combustion (0.15–0.74 ng Nm−3). PAH emissions without the catalytic converter were high (47–85 mg Nm−3) which is typical for batch combustion of wood logs.Total PAH concentrations were lower (on average 0.8-fold), and chlorophenol and PCDD/F levels were substantially higher (4.3-fold and 8.7-fold, respectively) when the catalytic converter was used. Increase in the chlorophenol and PCDD/F concentrations was most likely due to the catalytic effect of the platinum and palladium. Platinum and palladium may catalyze chlorination of PCDD/Fs via the Deacon reaction or an oxidation process.The influence of emissions from wood combustion to human health and the environment is a sum of effects caused by different compounds formed in the combustion. Therefore, the usage of platinum and palladium based catalytic converters to reduce emissions from residential wood combustion should be critically evaluated before wide-range utilization of the technology.

KW - Catalyst

KW - chlorophenol

KW - PAH

KW - PCDD/F

KW - wood combustion

U2 - 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.02.027

DO - 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.02.027

M3 - Article

VL - 88

SP - 278

EP - 285

JO - Chemosphere

JF - Chemosphere

SN - 0045-6535

IS - 3

ER -