Effects of Biomass Type, Carbonization Process, and Activation Method on the Properties of Bio-Based Activated Carbons

Virpi Siipola (Corresponding Author), Tarja Tamminen, Anssi Källi, Riikka Lahti, Henrik Romar, Kimmo Rasa, Riikka Keskinen, Jari Hyväluoma, Markus Hannula, Hanne Wikberg

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Abstract

Activated carbons (AC) serve as adsorbents in various applications requiring specific functionalities. In this study, the effects of biomass type, pre-carbonization process, and activation method on the properties of ACs were investigated. Chemical (KOH and H3PO4) and physical (CO2) activations were performed on slow pyrolyzed and hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) biochars produced from two feedstocks, willow and Scots pine bark (SPB). In addition, the adsorption capacities of the ACs were tested with two dyes and zinc metal. Distinct differences were found between the biochars and ACs regarding pore size distributions, surface area (238 - 3505 m2 g-1), and surface chemistry. KOH activation produced highly microporous ACs from all biochars, whereas with H3PO4 and CO2 there was also increase in the meso- and macroporosity with the HTC biochars. Adsorption capacity for dyes was dependent on the surface area, while for zinc it depended on AC’s pH. The results provide interesting insights into tailoring ACs for specific applications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5976-6002
Number of pages27
JournalBioResources
Volume13
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Carbonization
Activated carbon
activated carbon
dye
Biomass
surface area
zinc
Chemical activation
adsorption
biomass
Zinc
Dyes
bark
Adsorption
Coloring Agents
Salix
Surface chemistry
Adsorbents
Feedstocks
Pore size

Keywords

  • Biochar
  • Activated carbon;
  • Bio-based activated carbon
  • Willow
  • Pine bark
  • X-ray tomography

Cite this

Siipola, Virpi ; Tamminen, Tarja ; Källi, Anssi ; Lahti, Riikka ; Romar, Henrik ; Rasa, Kimmo ; Keskinen, Riikka ; Hyväluoma, Jari ; Hannula, Markus ; Wikberg, Hanne. / Effects of Biomass Type, Carbonization Process, and Activation Method on the Properties of Bio-Based Activated Carbons. In: BioResources. 2018 ; Vol. 13, No. 3. pp. 5976-6002.
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Siipola, V, Tamminen, T, Källi, A, Lahti, R, Romar, H, Rasa, K, Keskinen, R, Hyväluoma, J, Hannula, M & Wikberg, H 2018, 'Effects of Biomass Type, Carbonization Process, and Activation Method on the Properties of Bio-Based Activated Carbons', BioResources, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 5976-6002.

Effects of Biomass Type, Carbonization Process, and Activation Method on the Properties of Bio-Based Activated Carbons. / Siipola, Virpi (Corresponding Author); Tamminen, Tarja; Källi, Anssi; Lahti, Riikka; Romar, Henrik; Rasa, Kimmo; Keskinen, Riikka; Hyväluoma, Jari; Hannula, Markus; Wikberg, Hanne.

In: BioResources, Vol. 13, No. 3, 15.06.2018, p. 5976-6002.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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AU - Siipola, Virpi

AU - Tamminen, Tarja

AU - Källi, Anssi

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AU - Romar, Henrik

AU - Rasa, Kimmo

AU - Keskinen, Riikka

AU - Hyväluoma, Jari

AU - Hannula, Markus

AU - Wikberg, Hanne

PY - 2018/6/15

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N2 - Activated carbons (AC) serve as adsorbents in various applications requiring specific functionalities. In this study, the effects of biomass type, pre-carbonization process, and activation method on the properties of ACs were investigated. Chemical (KOH and H3PO4) and physical (CO2) activations were performed on slow pyrolyzed and hydrothermally carbonized (HTC) biochars produced from two feedstocks, willow and Scots pine bark (SPB). In addition, the adsorption capacities of the ACs were tested with two dyes and zinc metal. Distinct differences were found between the biochars and ACs regarding pore size distributions, surface area (238 - 3505 m2 g-1), and surface chemistry. KOH activation produced highly microporous ACs from all biochars, whereas with H3PO4 and CO2 there was also increase in the meso- and macroporosity with the HTC biochars. Adsorption capacity for dyes was dependent on the surface area, while for zinc it depended on AC’s pH. The results provide interesting insights into tailoring ACs for specific applications.

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KW - Willow

KW - Pine bark

KW - X-ray tomography

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