Effects of calcium and plant sterols on serum lipids in obese Zucker rats on a low-fat diet

Timo Vaskonen, Eero Mervaala, Ville Sumuvuori, Tuulikki Seppänen-Laakso, Heikki Karppanen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

59 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ca may interfere with fat and cholesterol metabolism through formation of insoluble soaps with fatty and bile acids in the intestine. In the present study, we examined the effects of different dietary Ca levels on the serum lipid profile and cholesterol metabolism in obese Zucker rats fed a low-fat diet. We also tested whether dietary Ca interfered with the lipid-lowering effects of a pine oil-derived plant sterol mixture. Increase in dietary Ca intake from 0·2 to 0·8 %, and further to 2·1 % (w/w) dose-dependently decreased serum total cholesterol (r -0·565, P=0·002, n 27), LDL-cholesterol (r -0·538, P=0·006, n 25), and triacylglycerol (r -0·484, P=0·014, n 25) concentrations, and increased HDL-cholesterol (r 0·478, P=0·016, n 25) and HDL : LDL cholesterol (r 0·672, P<0·001, n 25) in rats fed a 1 % cholesterol diet. Analysis of serum campesterol : cholesterol and sitosterol : cholesterol suggested that Ca dose-dependently increased intestinal cholesterol absorption (r 0·913, P<0·001, n 18), whereas serum desmosterol : cholesterol and lathosterol : cholesterol indicated that Ca dose-dependently increased endogenous cholesterol synthesis (r 0·691, P=0·003, n 18). Therefore, the decrease of serum LDL-cholesterol appeared to be due to Ca-induced increase in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids. The increase in Ca intake did not interfere with the beneficial effects of plant sterols on serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The high-Ca diet with plant sterol supplementation further increased the HDL-cholesterol concentration and HDL : LDL cholesterol. The present findings indicate that the beneficial effects of dietary Ca on the serum lipid profile during a low-fat diet are dose-dependent, and resemble those of bile acid sequestrants. Increased dietary Ca did not impede the lipid-lowering effects of natural plant sterols.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)239-245
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Volume87
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Zucker Rats
Phytosterols
Fat-Restricted Diet
Cholesterol
Calcium
Lipids
Serum
LDL Cholesterol
HDL Cholesterol
Bile Acids and Salts
Desmosterol
Diet
Soaps
Intestinal Absorption
Intestines
Oils
Triglycerides
Fatty Acids

Keywords

  • Calcium
  • Cholesterol
  • Plant sterols
  • Zucker rats

Cite this

Vaskonen, Timo ; Mervaala, Eero ; Sumuvuori, Ville ; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki ; Karppanen, Heikki. / Effects of calcium and plant sterols on serum lipids in obese Zucker rats on a low-fat diet. In: British Journal of Nutrition. 2002 ; Vol. 87, No. 3. pp. 239-245.
@article{4164034937b34d37b33e941254051529,
title = "Effects of calcium and plant sterols on serum lipids in obese Zucker rats on a low-fat diet",
abstract = "Ca may interfere with fat and cholesterol metabolism through formation of insoluble soaps with fatty and bile acids in the intestine. In the present study, we examined the effects of different dietary Ca levels on the serum lipid profile and cholesterol metabolism in obese Zucker rats fed a low-fat diet. We also tested whether dietary Ca interfered with the lipid-lowering effects of a pine oil-derived plant sterol mixture. Increase in dietary Ca intake from 0·2 to 0·8 {\%}, and further to 2·1 {\%} (w/w) dose-dependently decreased serum total cholesterol (r -0·565, P=0·002, n 27), LDL-cholesterol (r -0·538, P=0·006, n 25), and triacylglycerol (r -0·484, P=0·014, n 25) concentrations, and increased HDL-cholesterol (r 0·478, P=0·016, n 25) and HDL : LDL cholesterol (r 0·672, P<0·001, n 25) in rats fed a 1 {\%} cholesterol diet. Analysis of serum campesterol : cholesterol and sitosterol : cholesterol suggested that Ca dose-dependently increased intestinal cholesterol absorption (r 0·913, P<0·001, n 18), whereas serum desmosterol : cholesterol and lathosterol : cholesterol indicated that Ca dose-dependently increased endogenous cholesterol synthesis (r 0·691, P=0·003, n 18). Therefore, the decrease of serum LDL-cholesterol appeared to be due to Ca-induced increase in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids. The increase in Ca intake did not interfere with the beneficial effects of plant sterols on serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The high-Ca diet with plant sterol supplementation further increased the HDL-cholesterol concentration and HDL : LDL cholesterol. The present findings indicate that the beneficial effects of dietary Ca on the serum lipid profile during a low-fat diet are dose-dependent, and resemble those of bile acid sequestrants. Increased dietary Ca did not impede the lipid-lowering effects of natural plant sterols.",
keywords = "Calcium, Cholesterol, Plant sterols, Zucker rats",
author = "Timo Vaskonen and Eero Mervaala and Ville Sumuvuori and Tuulikki Sepp{\"a}nen-Laakso and Heikki Karppanen",
year = "2002",
doi = "10.1079/BJN2001508",
language = "English",
volume = "87",
pages = "239--245",
journal = "British Journal of Nutrition",
issn = "0007-1145",
publisher = "Cambridge University Press",
number = "3",

}

Effects of calcium and plant sterols on serum lipids in obese Zucker rats on a low-fat diet. / Vaskonen, Timo; Mervaala, Eero; Sumuvuori, Ville; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Karppanen, Heikki.

In: British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 87, No. 3, 2002, p. 239-245.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of calcium and plant sterols on serum lipids in obese Zucker rats on a low-fat diet

AU - Vaskonen, Timo

AU - Mervaala, Eero

AU - Sumuvuori, Ville

AU - Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki

AU - Karppanen, Heikki

PY - 2002

Y1 - 2002

N2 - Ca may interfere with fat and cholesterol metabolism through formation of insoluble soaps with fatty and bile acids in the intestine. In the present study, we examined the effects of different dietary Ca levels on the serum lipid profile and cholesterol metabolism in obese Zucker rats fed a low-fat diet. We also tested whether dietary Ca interfered with the lipid-lowering effects of a pine oil-derived plant sterol mixture. Increase in dietary Ca intake from 0·2 to 0·8 %, and further to 2·1 % (w/w) dose-dependently decreased serum total cholesterol (r -0·565, P=0·002, n 27), LDL-cholesterol (r -0·538, P=0·006, n 25), and triacylglycerol (r -0·484, P=0·014, n 25) concentrations, and increased HDL-cholesterol (r 0·478, P=0·016, n 25) and HDL : LDL cholesterol (r 0·672, P<0·001, n 25) in rats fed a 1 % cholesterol diet. Analysis of serum campesterol : cholesterol and sitosterol : cholesterol suggested that Ca dose-dependently increased intestinal cholesterol absorption (r 0·913, P<0·001, n 18), whereas serum desmosterol : cholesterol and lathosterol : cholesterol indicated that Ca dose-dependently increased endogenous cholesterol synthesis (r 0·691, P=0·003, n 18). Therefore, the decrease of serum LDL-cholesterol appeared to be due to Ca-induced increase in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids. The increase in Ca intake did not interfere with the beneficial effects of plant sterols on serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The high-Ca diet with plant sterol supplementation further increased the HDL-cholesterol concentration and HDL : LDL cholesterol. The present findings indicate that the beneficial effects of dietary Ca on the serum lipid profile during a low-fat diet are dose-dependent, and resemble those of bile acid sequestrants. Increased dietary Ca did not impede the lipid-lowering effects of natural plant sterols.

AB - Ca may interfere with fat and cholesterol metabolism through formation of insoluble soaps with fatty and bile acids in the intestine. In the present study, we examined the effects of different dietary Ca levels on the serum lipid profile and cholesterol metabolism in obese Zucker rats fed a low-fat diet. We also tested whether dietary Ca interfered with the lipid-lowering effects of a pine oil-derived plant sterol mixture. Increase in dietary Ca intake from 0·2 to 0·8 %, and further to 2·1 % (w/w) dose-dependently decreased serum total cholesterol (r -0·565, P=0·002, n 27), LDL-cholesterol (r -0·538, P=0·006, n 25), and triacylglycerol (r -0·484, P=0·014, n 25) concentrations, and increased HDL-cholesterol (r 0·478, P=0·016, n 25) and HDL : LDL cholesterol (r 0·672, P<0·001, n 25) in rats fed a 1 % cholesterol diet. Analysis of serum campesterol : cholesterol and sitosterol : cholesterol suggested that Ca dose-dependently increased intestinal cholesterol absorption (r 0·913, P<0·001, n 18), whereas serum desmosterol : cholesterol and lathosterol : cholesterol indicated that Ca dose-dependently increased endogenous cholesterol synthesis (r 0·691, P=0·003, n 18). Therefore, the decrease of serum LDL-cholesterol appeared to be due to Ca-induced increase in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids. The increase in Ca intake did not interfere with the beneficial effects of plant sterols on serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The high-Ca diet with plant sterol supplementation further increased the HDL-cholesterol concentration and HDL : LDL cholesterol. The present findings indicate that the beneficial effects of dietary Ca on the serum lipid profile during a low-fat diet are dose-dependent, and resemble those of bile acid sequestrants. Increased dietary Ca did not impede the lipid-lowering effects of natural plant sterols.

KW - Calcium

KW - Cholesterol

KW - Plant sterols

KW - Zucker rats

U2 - 10.1079/BJN2001508

DO - 10.1079/BJN2001508

M3 - Article

VL - 87

SP - 239

EP - 245

JO - British Journal of Nutrition

JF - British Journal of Nutrition

SN - 0007-1145

IS - 3

ER -