Effects of sample preparation on chemistry, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory responses induced by air particulate matter

Pasi Jalava, R.O. Salonen, A.I. Halinen, M. Sillanpää, Erik Sandell, M.R. Hirvonen

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Abstract

Methanol is used for high-efficiency extraction of air particulate (PM) mass from the sampling substrate in the high-volume cascade impactor. Sonication is needed during extraction and when dissolving dried PM samples in liquids used in exposure studies. We investigated the effects of these procedures on the PM chemistry and PM-induced cytotoxic and inflammatory responses in mouse macrophages. Untreated and methanol-treated ambient air reference PM samples (SRM1649a, EHC-93) and diesel PM (SRM1650) were tested after different sonication durations (5–30 min). Furthermore, the time dependency of the responses to SRM1649a, EHC-93, and a fine PM sample from Helsinki was investigated. Methanol pretreatment increased on average by 24% and 21% the recovery of water-soluble metals from SRM1649a and EHC-93, but not SRM1650. It had no systematic effect on the recoveries of inorganic secondary ions (NO3-, SO42-, NH4+) or the sum of genotoxic PAH compounds from the three reference samples. Nitric oxide (NO) response to SRM1650 was strongly enhanced by methanol pretreatment, whereas the cytotoxic or inflammatory responses to the ambient air PM samples (EHC-93, SRM1649a) were only slightly modified. Sonication duration was a modifying factor only in connection to SRM1650. Maximal interleukin (IL)-1 production was observed earlier (8 h) than maximal tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and IL-6 productions (24 h), which indicates the importance to know the optimal time points for measurement of the selected response parameters. In conclusion, methanol extraction and reasonable sonication duration are not likely to modify the cytotoxic and inflammatory potency of ambient air PM samples, but some responses to air PM, rich in organic compounds, can be modified.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-117
JournalInhalation Toxicology
Volume17
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Particulate Matter
Cytotoxicity
Sonication
Methanol
Air
Recovery
Macrophages
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Interleukin-1
Organic compounds
Interleukin-6
Nitric Oxide
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Metals
Ions
Sampling
Water
Liquids
Substrates

Cite this

Jalava, P., Salonen, R. O., Halinen, A. I., Sillanpää, M., Sandell, E., & Hirvonen, M. R. (2005). Effects of sample preparation on chemistry, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory responses induced by air particulate matter. Inhalation Toxicology, 17(2), 107-117. https://doi.org/10.1080/08958370590899550
Jalava, Pasi ; Salonen, R.O. ; Halinen, A.I. ; Sillanpää, M. ; Sandell, Erik ; Hirvonen, M.R. / Effects of sample preparation on chemistry, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory responses induced by air particulate matter. In: Inhalation Toxicology. 2005 ; Vol. 17, No. 2. pp. 107-117.
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abstract = "Methanol is used for high-efficiency extraction of air particulate (PM) mass from the sampling substrate in the high-volume cascade impactor. Sonication is needed during extraction and when dissolving dried PM samples in liquids used in exposure studies. We investigated the effects of these procedures on the PM chemistry and PM-induced cytotoxic and inflammatory responses in mouse macrophages. Untreated and methanol-treated ambient air reference PM samples (SRM1649a, EHC-93) and diesel PM (SRM1650) were tested after different sonication durations (5–30 min). Furthermore, the time dependency of the responses to SRM1649a, EHC-93, and a fine PM sample from Helsinki was investigated. Methanol pretreatment increased on average by 24{\%} and 21{\%} the recovery of water-soluble metals from SRM1649a and EHC-93, but not SRM1650. It had no systematic effect on the recoveries of inorganic secondary ions (NO3-, SO42-, NH4+) or the sum of genotoxic PAH compounds from the three reference samples. Nitric oxide (NO) response to SRM1650 was strongly enhanced by methanol pretreatment, whereas the cytotoxic or inflammatory responses to the ambient air PM samples (EHC-93, SRM1649a) were only slightly modified. Sonication duration was a modifying factor only in connection to SRM1650. Maximal interleukin (IL)-1 production was observed earlier (8 h) than maximal tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and IL-6 productions (24 h), which indicates the importance to know the optimal time points for measurement of the selected response parameters. In conclusion, methanol extraction and reasonable sonication duration are not likely to modify the cytotoxic and inflammatory potency of ambient air PM samples, but some responses to air PM, rich in organic compounds, can be modified.",
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Jalava, P, Salonen, RO, Halinen, AI, Sillanpää, M, Sandell, E & Hirvonen, MR 2005, 'Effects of sample preparation on chemistry, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory responses induced by air particulate matter', Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 107-117. https://doi.org/10.1080/08958370590899550

Effects of sample preparation on chemistry, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory responses induced by air particulate matter. / Jalava, Pasi; Salonen, R.O.; Halinen, A.I.; Sillanpää, M.; Sandell, Erik; Hirvonen, M.R.

In: Inhalation Toxicology, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2005, p. 107-117.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of sample preparation on chemistry, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory responses induced by air particulate matter

AU - Jalava, Pasi

AU - Salonen, R.O.

AU - Halinen, A.I.

AU - Sillanpää, M.

AU - Sandell, Erik

AU - Hirvonen, M.R.

PY - 2005

Y1 - 2005

N2 - Methanol is used for high-efficiency extraction of air particulate (PM) mass from the sampling substrate in the high-volume cascade impactor. Sonication is needed during extraction and when dissolving dried PM samples in liquids used in exposure studies. We investigated the effects of these procedures on the PM chemistry and PM-induced cytotoxic and inflammatory responses in mouse macrophages. Untreated and methanol-treated ambient air reference PM samples (SRM1649a, EHC-93) and diesel PM (SRM1650) were tested after different sonication durations (5–30 min). Furthermore, the time dependency of the responses to SRM1649a, EHC-93, and a fine PM sample from Helsinki was investigated. Methanol pretreatment increased on average by 24% and 21% the recovery of water-soluble metals from SRM1649a and EHC-93, but not SRM1650. It had no systematic effect on the recoveries of inorganic secondary ions (NO3-, SO42-, NH4+) or the sum of genotoxic PAH compounds from the three reference samples. Nitric oxide (NO) response to SRM1650 was strongly enhanced by methanol pretreatment, whereas the cytotoxic or inflammatory responses to the ambient air PM samples (EHC-93, SRM1649a) were only slightly modified. Sonication duration was a modifying factor only in connection to SRM1650. Maximal interleukin (IL)-1 production was observed earlier (8 h) than maximal tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and IL-6 productions (24 h), which indicates the importance to know the optimal time points for measurement of the selected response parameters. In conclusion, methanol extraction and reasonable sonication duration are not likely to modify the cytotoxic and inflammatory potency of ambient air PM samples, but some responses to air PM, rich in organic compounds, can be modified.

AB - Methanol is used for high-efficiency extraction of air particulate (PM) mass from the sampling substrate in the high-volume cascade impactor. Sonication is needed during extraction and when dissolving dried PM samples in liquids used in exposure studies. We investigated the effects of these procedures on the PM chemistry and PM-induced cytotoxic and inflammatory responses in mouse macrophages. Untreated and methanol-treated ambient air reference PM samples (SRM1649a, EHC-93) and diesel PM (SRM1650) were tested after different sonication durations (5–30 min). Furthermore, the time dependency of the responses to SRM1649a, EHC-93, and a fine PM sample from Helsinki was investigated. Methanol pretreatment increased on average by 24% and 21% the recovery of water-soluble metals from SRM1649a and EHC-93, but not SRM1650. It had no systematic effect on the recoveries of inorganic secondary ions (NO3-, SO42-, NH4+) or the sum of genotoxic PAH compounds from the three reference samples. Nitric oxide (NO) response to SRM1650 was strongly enhanced by methanol pretreatment, whereas the cytotoxic or inflammatory responses to the ambient air PM samples (EHC-93, SRM1649a) were only slightly modified. Sonication duration was a modifying factor only in connection to SRM1650. Maximal interleukin (IL)-1 production was observed earlier (8 h) than maximal tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and IL-6 productions (24 h), which indicates the importance to know the optimal time points for measurement of the selected response parameters. In conclusion, methanol extraction and reasonable sonication duration are not likely to modify the cytotoxic and inflammatory potency of ambient air PM samples, but some responses to air PM, rich in organic compounds, can be modified.

U2 - 10.1080/08958370590899550

DO - 10.1080/08958370590899550

M3 - Article

VL - 17

SP - 107

EP - 117

JO - Inhalation Toxicology

JF - Inhalation Toxicology

SN - 0895-8378

IS - 2

ER -