The effects of sourdough and enzyme mixture (α-amylase, xylanase and lipase) on the specific volume, staling and microstructure of wheat pan bread supplemented with wheat bran were studied. Staling of bread was followed for 6 days by measuring the crumb firmness, changes in crystallization of amylopectin (DSC), increase in signal from the solid phase (NMR) and by light microscopy. The most effective treatment in improvement of quality was the combination of bran sourdough and enzyme mixture. During storage the rate of changes in crumb firmness, amylopectin crystallinity and rigidity of polymers were greatest for the white wheat bread. The most pronounced microstructural changes were swelling of starch granules and separation of amylose and amylopectin in the starch granules. Least changes in crumb firmness, amylopectin crystallinity and rigidity of polymers were observed in bran sourdough bread with enzymes. In contrast to white wheat bread, the starch granules were very much swollen in bran sourdough bread with enzyme mixture. This was hypothesized to be due to the higher water content of bran bread, and degradation of cell wall components leading to altered distribution of water among starch, gluten and bran particles during storage.
- High-fibre baking
Katina, K., Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., Partanen, R., Forssell, P., & Autio, K. (2006). Effects of sourdough and enzymes on staling of high-fibre wheat bread. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 39(5), 479-491. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2005.03.013