Effects of wheat and rye bread structure on mastication process and bolus properties

Saara Pentikäinen, Nesli Sözer, Johanna Närväinen, Saara Ylätalo, Pekka Teppola, Jukka Jurvelin, Ulla Holopainen-Mantila, Riitta Törrönen, Anna-Marja Aura, Kaisa Poutanen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    44 Citations (Scopus)


    Chemical composition, baking process and structure of breads influence their degradation in digestion leading to different postprandial responses. Rye bread has a very different structure as compared to wheat bread, and rye breads are known to induce lower postprandial insulin responses than wheat bread. The aim of this study was to find out potential differences in mastication and initial starch hydrolysis rate of rye and wheat breads. Three rye breads (wholemeal rye, endosperm rye and endosperm rye with gluten) and wheat bread were masticated by fifteen participants and the process was monitored using electromyography. The particle size distribution and initial in vitro starch hydrolysis of the bread boluses were analysed. Specific volume correlated negatively and closed porosity of breads correlated positively with work required for mastication. When compared to wheat bread, wholemeal rye bread required more work for mastication process (p=0.004). Rye breads were degraded to smaller particles than wheat bread during mastication. There was a trend (p=0.098) towards slower in vitro starch hydrolysis rate in rye bread boluses than in wheat bread boluses. The results indicate that the digestion process of rye breads differs from that of wheat bread already in the early phase of digestion. This may be one reason behind the unique postprandial responses reported for rye breads.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)356-364
    JournalFood Research International
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2014
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Bolus
    • Bread
    • Digestion
    • Endosperm (refined) rye bread
    • Endosperm (refined) rye bread with gluten
    • Mastication
    • RYE-ENDO
    • Refined wheat bread
    • Rye
    • Structure
    • WHEAT
    • Wheat
    • Wholemeal rye bread


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