Electric and hybrid electric non-road mobile machinery - present situation and future trends

Antti Lajunen, Jussi Suomela, Jenni Pippuri, Kari Tammi, Teemu Lehmuspelto, Panu Sainio

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    17 Citations (Scopus)


    Electrification of non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) is a growing trend. This paper highlights the potential of electric and hybrid powertrains in different NRMM sectors and elaborates the factors that may hinder the development. The NRMM sectors, the vehicle types, their operation and duty cycles and market shares are described. Comparison between the typical duty cycles and operation of on-road and off-road vehicles is performed in order to gain insight into the specific features of off-road vehicles. The development of NRMM is subject to various drivers that range from customer needs to fuel and energy prices and rules and legislation. The main results of our study are 1) a review of the present status and analysis of the future trends and potential of electrification and hybridization of NRMM and, 2) propositions for overcoming the challenges that are related to the electrification and hybridization of NRMM.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)172-183
    JournalWorld Electric Vehicle Journal
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2016
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed
    EventEVS29 Symposium
    Montréal, Québec, Canada, June 19-22, 2016: EVS29 Symposium
    - Montreal, Canada
    Duration: 19 Jun 201622 Jun 2016


    • electric powertrain
    • emissions
    • hybrid powertrain
    • hybridization
    • non-road mobile machinery


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